Events, Military and Civil, During the Hundred Years War
The Hundred Years War took place during a time of great change in Europe. The Renaissance was just getting started and many of the artists of that period were alive at the beginning of the war or were born before it ended. Below is a list of at least one notable event that took place during each year of the Hundred Years War
1337-William Merlee of Oxford attempts first scientific weather forecasts.
1338-French raid burns Portsmouth.
1339-Grenoble University founded.
1340-French occupy Guyenne. French invasion fleet destroyed at Sluys.
1341-Petrarch accalimed as great poet in Rome.
1342-Clement VI becomes pope (until 1351)
1343- Desultory fighting between English and French in France.
1344-Philip VI, king of France, makes the Crown Prince Philip the Duc d'Orleans.
1345-Bankruptcy of the Florintine banking houses of Bardi and Peruzzi (due to loaning King Edward III 400 million ducats, on which Edward defaulted. This brought about the collapse of several other banks, and a long period of what we would today call "tight money.")
1346-French defeated at Crecy.
1347-Calais surrendered to Edward III. Cola di Rienzi "tribune of the people" rules in Rome, keeping the French pope in Avignon out. Black Death sweeps Europe.
1348- Edward III founds the Order of the Garter.
1349-Jews persecuted in Germany (they had previously been expelled from France and England.) Black Death kills about a third of the population of England.
1350-Phillipe VI of France dies, succeeded by his son Jean II. Edward III begins to rebuild Winsdor castle. Cambrai, not Paris, becomes center of French music, under the aegis of the Prince Bishop's court. Lute (the forerunner of the modern guitar) playing gains popularity in Europe. Master singer movement in Germany. Shogun of Japan prohibits drinking tea.
1351- Zurich joins the Swiss league. Tennis becomes an open air game in England. Black Death toll to this point is 75 million people in Europe alone..
1352-Glarus and Zug join Swiss league. Arab geographer Ibn Battuta explores Sahara. Corpus Christi College founded at Oxford.
1353- Nicholas d'Autrecourt, noted French philosopher, dies (it was a slow year...).
1354- Turks take Gallipoli, gaining a foothold in Europe. Mechanical clock installed at Strasbourg cathederal.
1355- Scots defeat English at Nesbit.
1356- The Black Prince defeats the French at Poitiers, taking King Jean II and son Phillipe prisoner. Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire issues "Golden Bull" setting forth process for election of German kings (legitimizes the the "Elector" system).
1357- Revolution in Paris against the Dauphin, led by Marcel and Robert le Coq.
1358- The Hapsburgs defeated twice at Zurich by Swiss pikemen, sign peace treaty with Swiss League.
1359- Treaty of London, restores English possessions taken by French before the HYW began.
1360- Treaty of Calais between Edward III and Philip of Burgandy.
1361- Black Death reappears in England.
1362- English poem "Piers Plowman" written by William Langland.
1363- Peace of Bretigny, ending the first phase of the war, which has so far been a draw. Timur the Lame leads Mongol armies to new conquests in Asia, sweeping over northern India..
1364- Jean II, Charles V becomes king of France (dies in 1380).
1365-Charles V crowned king of Burgandy at Arles. Vienna University founded.
1366- English parlement refuses to pay feudal dues to the pope.
1367- Turks expand their hold on European side of the Dardennales (Constantinople still held by Byzantines).
1368-Mongols overthrown in China by the Mings.
1369- The Bastille is built in Paris.
1370- Steel crossbows developed, more powerful than older wooden ones,
1371- Robert II becomes king of Scots, first Stewart king.
1372- French defeat English several times. Welch rebel takes Gurnsey.
1373- John of Gaunt (younger son of Edward III) leads English army into France via Calais.
1374- Petrarch dies.
1375- Treaty of Bruges between England and France
1376- Edward, the Black Prince, dies.
1377- Edward III dies, his grandson Richard II becomes king (deposed, 1399).
1378- French renew fighting with English. "Great Schism " begins in the Church.
1379- New College, Oxford, founded.
1380- Charles V of France dies, Charles VI ("the deranged") becomes king. This is actually the end of the Valois line (and, in effect, the even more ancient Capetian line), as Charles VII was fathered by a boyfriend of Charles VI's wife (she wouldn't say which boyfriend, but Charles VII was a big improvement on the last few Valois kings).
1381- Wat Tyler led peasants' rebellion in England.
1382- Wyclif expelled from Oxford for preaching heresy .
1383- Turks conquer what is now Bulgaria.
1384- War between England and Scotland.
1385- Fighting renewed in France.
1386- Swiss defeat yet another Austrian army at Sempach.
1387- Chaucer begins the "Canterbury Tales " (finishes it in 1400, dies soon thereafter.)
1388- Scots defeat English at Chevy Chase.
1389- Truce between England, Scotland and France.
1390- Robert III becomes king of Scotland.
1391- Wyclif's heretical writings cause formation of first Protestant groups in Bohemia.
1392- Charles VI of France goes completely mad.
1393 King of Bohemia cracks down on religious "irregularity."
1394- Richard II invades Ireland.
1395- Richard II subdues Ireland.
1396- Richard II marries Isabella of France at Calais.
1397- Sweden, Denmark, and Norway unite.
1398- Timur the Lame conquers northern India.
1399- Richard II deposed, Henry IV (grandson of Edward III through John of Gaunt) becomes king.
1400- Henry IV defeats rebellion by English nobles.
1401- Timur the Lame conquers Baghdad and Syria.
1402- Timur defeats Turks in Anatolia.
1403- Henry IV suppresses rebellion in northern England.
1404- Art and literature florish in Ming dynasty China.
1405- Timur the Lame dies (just in time, he was getting awfully close...).
1406- Robert II of Scotland dies, succeeded by James I who is promptly taken prisoner by the English.
1407- Louis, Duke of Orleans, murdered by Burgundians, civil war rages in France.
1408- Cardinals of Rome and Avignon meet to end the "Great Schism" (anti-popes.) Negotiations drag on for years.
1409- Leipzig University founded.
1410- Heretic (or First Protestant, if you will) Jan Hus and his followers (the "Hussites") excommunicated in Prague.
1411- Sigismund, King of Hungary, elected Holy Roman Emperor.
1412- Joan of Arc born.
1413- Henry IV dies, Henry V becomes king of England (until 1422)
1414- The Medici of Florence become bankers to the Papacy.
1415- Jan Hus burned at the stake for Heresy. Battle of Agincourt.
1416- Dutch fishermen begin to use drift nets, making fishing much more efficient and profitable. Beginning of Dutch rise to commercial prominance in the region.
1417- Pope Martin V elected, end of the Great Schism (anti-popes).
1418- Henry V rampages through France, many French cities fall.
1419- Henry V allies with Burgundians against the French king.
1420- Treaty of Troyes, Charles VI ("the deranged") recognizes Henry V as his heir and gives him his daughter as Henry Vs wife.
1421- Hussite wars rage in Bohemia, Hussites are winning.
1422- Henry V dies, succeeded by his nine month old son, Henry VI. Charles VI dies, many French nobles recognize son of Charles VI as real French king (Charles VII.)
1423- English release King James I of Scotland.
1424- Bohemia in flames, as Hussites fight Imperial troops, and each other.
1425- John VIII becomes Byzantine emperor, last chance to save Byzantium.
1426- Holland becomes center of European music.
1427- Itzcoatl, king of the Aztecs, begins conquest of neighbors and establishment of an empire.
1428- Joan of Arc begins to lead French troops against the English.
1429- Joan of Arc raises English siege of Orleans, Charles VII crowned king of France in Rheims. Child king Henry VI crowned at Westminster.
1430- Joan of Arc captured by Burgundians. Modern English becomes a noticiable evolution of Middle English as common form of spoken English.
1431- Joan of Arc burned at the stake for heresy. Henry VI crowned king of France in Paris (he's nine years old and, boy, has he got problems.)
1432- Portuguese sailors discover the Azores islands.
1433- Sigismund finally crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
1434- Revolt in Rome, pope flees. Heretic armies continue to march in the Holy Roman Empire.
1435- Peace of Arras between Charles VII and Philip of Burgandy. French civil war over, the English are in big trouble.
1436- English garrison withdraws from Paris. Scots defeat English at Berwick. Hussite war ends in Holy Roman Empire (Hussites lose).
1437- James I of Scotland murdered, succeeded by James II.
1438- Nine years truce between England and Scotland. Inca Empire founded.
1439- Heir to the French throne receives the title of the Comte de Dauphine (and hold it until the French monarchy disappears in the 19th century.)
1440- Study of ancient Greek philosophy grows in Italy.
1441- Portuguese sail to West Africa, begin European slave trade in Africa (the Arabs had been at it for centuries).
1442- Turks begin advancing north towards Hungary.
1443- Hungarians stop Turks as Nish.
1444- Sandro Botticelli born. Italian painting advances into the Renaissance.
1445- Henry VI marries Margaret of Anjou.
1446- Building of Kings College Chapel in Cambridge.
1447- Scanderbeg liberates Albania from the Turks.
1448- Rival Lancaster and York groups form in England.
1449- English break truce in France, renew fighting.
1450- John Cade leads rebellion in England. Vatican Library founded.
1451- Inca armies advance in several directions, conquering primitive tribes.
1452- Metal plates first used for printing.
1453- Turks take Constantinople, English admit defeat in France, giving up everything but Calais.