Hundred Years War
Informational Data for Fiefs and Player Characters
As of Mar 5, 1994
Note: This file is periodically updated as additional information becomes available. Suggestions, corrections,and annotations are welcome.
Part I: Kingdoms, Provinces, and Fiefs
A0000 HRE:Arles HRE:Arles -Arles is a kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire, lying between the Alps and the Rhone River. Brought into the Roman world in 121 B.C., the area was so thoroughly Romanized as to be considered almost an extension of Italy. During the Barbarian invasions the Burgundians, a barbarian tribe, invaded the area and established a kingdom which was incorporated into the Frankish Kingdom in 534. With the collapse of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, the former Burgundian regions splintered as well, with the portions south of the Jura becoming, in 933, the Kingdom of Burgundy, which later was more generally known as the Kingdom of Arles, or the Arelate. The Arelate was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire in the 11th century, and has remained so ever since, though the authority of the Emperor is little felt, as the ruling House of Anjou supported the papacy during its great struggle with the Emperors in the 12th and 13th centuries (in return for which the Angevins have enjoyed papal support in certain of their endeavors, including the acquisition of Naples in the mid-13th century). There are archbishops in Arles, Aix, Embrun, and Vienne, and the Pope himself resides at Avignon, in Provence. A university is planned to open at Grenoble in 1339. Save in the alpine uplands, the kingdom is fertile, with particularly fine olive and grape production, and a good deal of commerce and industry.
ADA00 HRE:Arles Dauphine -Dauphine, properly 'The Dauphine,' comprises the northern half of the Arelate, with which it shares its history. The province is under the authority of the Counts of Vienne, themselves subject to the King of Arles. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Vienne. There is some commerce in many of the towns, but the principal pursuits are agricultural, including wines (some of which are very fine), grains, and livestock.
ADA01 HRE:Arles Dauphine Villeubanne
ADA02 HRE:Arles Dauphine Les Echelles
ADA03 HRE:Arles Dauphine La Tour du Pin
ADA04 HRE:Arles Dauphine Vienne, the principal town of the Dauphine, itself ranks as a county.
ADA05 HRE:Arles Dauphine Briancon
ADA06 HRE:Arles Dauphine Grenoble, a fine town and commercial center, is to open a new university within the next two years, the first in Arles.
ADA07 HRE:Arles Dauphine Valence
ADA08 HRE:Arles Dauphine Embrun is the seat of an archbishopric founded in 794.
ADA09 HRE:Arles Dauphine Cap
ADA10 HRE:Arles Dauphine Aspres
ADA11 HRE:Arles Dauphine Montelimar
ADA12 HRE:Arles Dauphine Seyne
ADA13 HRE:Arles Dauphine Donzere
AFC00 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte -Franche-Comte, often known as the 'Free County of Burgundy,' was originally part of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians (see the French Duchy of Burgundy), but by the 11th century had fallen under the suzereignity of the Holy Roman Empire, which it still enjoys. The area is mountainous, but fertile, and prospers, not alone because of the numerous trade routes and relatively large towns. Ecclesiastical authority is vested primarily in the Archbishop of Besancon, but some areas are dependent upon other archepiscopal sees.
AFC01 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Luxeil
AFC02 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Vesoul
AFC03 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Clerval
AFC04 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Besancon is the capital and principal town of the Franche-Comte, with some industry, including lace making, as well as a fair amount of trade. The town is the seat of an archbishop (since Roman times), as well as of the count. Note that technically Besancon is a free city within the Holy Roman Empire, but the writ of the count is strong.
AFC05 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Pesmes
AFC06 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Pontarlie
AFC07 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Salins
AFC08 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Poligny
AFC09 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Champagnole
AFC10 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Lons
AFC11 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Louhans
AFC12 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Morez
AFC13 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte De la Seille
AFC14 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Gex, legally a republic, within the limits of a charter granted by the count.
AFC15 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Ste-Amour
AFC16 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte La Bresse
AFC17 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Nantua
AFC18 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Bourg
AFC19 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte La Dombes
AFC20 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte St. Julien
AFC21 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Amberieu
AFC22 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Trevoux
AFC23 HRE:Arles Franche-Comte Belly
ANC00 HRE:Arles Nice -Nice, situated on the western side of the Alps where they meet the sea, was founded by the Greeks around 350 B.C. Eventually incorporated into the Roman world, upon the fall of Rome it passed successively to the Ostrogoths, the Visigoths, and finally the Franks. Upon the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in the ninth century, it was briefly part of Lothringia before being incorporated into Burgundy. It has been a county within the Kingdom of Alres for some centuries now. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Emburn. There is a good deal of maritime commerce, and some agricultural activity.
ANC01 HRE:Arles Nice Monaco was first settled by the Phoenicians, who built a trading post on the site of its fine harbor. For so small a place it has had a stormy history, passing from Phoenician to Greek to Carthaginian to Roman to various breeds of Barbarian, the Franks, and eventually to Genoa in 1162. Over a century later the Genoese Grimaldi family seized it by a ruse (they gained entry by disguising themselves a monks), and they have ruled it ever since, under the protection of the Counts of Nice and ultimately the Kings of Arles. There is some shipping and fishing, and the town enjoys a favorable location on the principal coastal route between Genoa and Nice. Monaco is the only area in the game ruled by the same family to this day.
ANC02 HRE:Arles Nice Puget a poor place, barely able to feed itself.
ANC03 HRE:Arles Nice Nice proper posseses a very fine harbor, which is usually busy with shipping (Corsica is only about 150 miles to the southeast). There are shipyards and chanlderies, and even a little banking. The town is the seat of the count and of a bishop.
APR00 HRE:Arles Provence -Provence lies between the Rhone and the Alps. An ancient and rich region, it is named after the Roman "province" of Gallia Narbonensis, established in 121 B.C. On the fall of the Roman Empire it was overrun by successive waves of barbarians, but always remained rather more civilized than the rest of northwestern Europe. Part of the Carolingian Empire, it eventually became incorporated in the Kingdom of Arles, a part of the Holy Roman Empire from the early 11th centu ry. From the mid-13th century Provence has been ruled by the House of Anjou, technically in fief of the Holy Father. The Angevins have used Provence as a base from which to proceed to the conquest of Naples in 1266. Under the Angevins a regional estates has been established, and there is a good deal of local autonomy. There are archbishops at Arles, Aix, Emrun, and since 1309 Avignon has been the seat of the Popes. Fishing is important along the coast, and Marseilles is a major port. The principal products are wheat, wine, and olives, and there is some industry in the larger towns.
APR01 HRE:Arles Provence Barcelonette
APR02 HRE:Arles Provence Allos
APR03 HRE:Arles Provence Sisteron
APR04 HRE:Arles Provence Digne
APR05 HRE:Arles Provence Forcalguier
APR06 HRE:Arles Provence Annot
APR07 HRE:Arles Provence Castellane
APR08 HRE:Arles Provence Manosque
APR09 HRE:Arles Provence Tarascon-en-Provence
APR10 HRE:Arles Provence Antibes
APR11 HRE:Arles Provence Draguignan
APR12 HRE:Arles Provence Salernes
APR13 HRE:Arles Provence Aix-en-Provence, which with its environs has about 35,000 people, is capital of the the County of Provence and seat of the Archbishop of Aix. It is a river port, with some light industry.
APR14 HRE:Arles Provence Salon
APR15 HRE:Arles Provence Arles is the capital of both the Kingdom of that name, and the county of Provence. It is a large city, with considerable commerce and some manufacturing. There is an archbishop in residence, as well as the King-Count himself. Arles was the ancient Roman capital of the area.
APR16 HRE:Arles Provence Frejus
APR17 HRE:Arles Provence Brignoles
APR18 HRE:Arles Provence Les Pins
APR19 HRE:Arles Provence Aubagne
APR20 HRE:Arles Provence Marseilles
APR21 HRE:Arles Provence St Tropez
APR22 HRE:Arles Provence Toulon
C0000 Catalonia Catalonia -Catalonia is an important kingdom in the northeastern part of Spain, with a distinctive culture and language. Brought into the Roman orbit during the Second Punic War, by early Christian times the area was thoroughly Romanized. Despite the Visigothic invasion in the 5th century, the fall of the Roman Empire little affected the area. The 7th century saw the Islamic conquest of Spain, and the area soon fell under Muslim rule. Charlemagne established the 'Marca Hispanica' (Spanish March) in the early 9th century, which, centered at Barcelona, and became the nucleus of the Catalan state. United with Aragon, another Christian kingdom clinging to the Pyrennes, in 1137, Catalonia, although technically the junior partner (Aragon ranks as a kingdom, and Catalonia only as a county), became the dominant partner, the united kingdom expanding not only southwards into Moorish Spain (Valencia, for example, was recaptured in 1238), but also overseas. Catalan influence is felt throughout the Mediterranean, with large areas of southern France, portions of Greece, Sicily and Sardinia all more or less subject to the crown of Aragon (i.e., Catalonia). The Ecclesiastical authority in the kingdom is divided between the archibishops of Saragossa, in Aragon, and Tarragona, in the County of Barcelona. There is a university at Lerida, west of Barcelona, founded in 1300. There is occasionally military activity against the Moors in Granada along the kingdom's southern frontier, and against the Barbary pirates, who harass the coast and those of Sardinia and Sicily, which are under Catalan control. Especially in its eastern regions, the kingdom is quite rich, with dense forests, fertile plains, and a number of important ports. There is a great deal of industry, and agriculture is well developed, producing olives and wines for export, as well as grains for domestic consumption.
CAR00 Catalonia Aragon -Aragon (which ranks technically as a kingdom, but whose king's power is rooted in his status as Count of Barcelona) emerged from the wreck of Visigothic Spain in the century following the Islamic conquest. For a time confined to the fringes of the Pyrenees, by the 11th century it had expanded to the Ebro (Saragossa fell in 1086). In 1137 the kingdom was united with the County of Barcelona. Aragon is a hard land, with extremes of temperature, but thinly populated. The region is overwhelmingly agrciultural and poor. There is an archbishop in Saragossa.
CBC00 Catalonia Barcelona -Barcelona, the city at the heart of the county, was founded by the Carthaginian Barca family, of which Hannibal was the most notable member. It passed to Rome some two centuries before Christ and remained a small, but prosperous city even under Visigothic rule, which was imposed seven centuries later. In the 6th century for a time under Muslim rule, the city was incorporated into Charlemagne's Empire as part of the Spanish March, and subsequently has become the hub of the Aragonese-Catalan world. The Count is subject to the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Tarragona, and there is a resident bishop as well. There is much shipping, trading, banking, and manufacturing in Barcelona and its environs, as well as a highly productive agriculture.
CCD00 Catalonia Cerdagne -Cerdagne, more correctly Cerdaga, is a large county nestled against the southern slope of the Pyrennes. An ancient Roman foundation, it was incorporated in the Visigothic Kingdom in the 5th century. During the Islamic invasion in the 7th century, Cerdagne was one of several Christian states which emerged in the shelter of the Pyrennes. Often overrun by the Moors, it was incorporated in Charlemagne's Frankish Empire in the 8th century, and thereafter passed under the influence of the Dukes of Aquitaine for many years, until it gradually passed into the orbit of the Catalans and Aragonese. The count is presently held by the King of Mallorca. The county is under the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Tarragona. There is little industry, and the soil is poor.
CPU00 Catalonia Puigcerda -Puigcerda is a small county on the southern slope of the Pryennes. Long a part of Cerdagne, in the 12th century it emerged as a separate entity, when Alfonso I of Aragon and Catalonia authorized the fortification of the town of Pugicerda ["Puig-in-Cerdagne"] for the first time. It is part of the archepiscopal province of Tarragona. It is a poor place.
CUR00 Catalonia Urgel -Urgel is a large county on the southern slope of the Pyrennes. A small place in Roman times, it became more important under Visigothic rule, St. Justo becoming the first bishop in 524. One of several Christian bastions which held out against the Islamic invasion of the 7th century, Urgel, initially under a line of prince-bishops of Seo de Urgel, came under Aragonese and Catalan influence after the collapse of the Carolingian Empire. The area was created a county in 1040, but disputes between the counts and the prince-bishops plagued it for over two centuries, until resolved by the King of Aragon in favor of the former. Despite this, the prince-bishop has considerable influence, and is largely autonomous of his ecclesiastical overlord, the Archbishop of Tarragona. There is some commerce, due to the proximity of the Pyrennean pass through Andorra, and the county is moderate fertile. Note that the county, albeit possessed of Don Jaime of Urgel, could readily be claimed by His Grace Don 197 Pedro IV Berenguer, the King of Aragon and Catalonia.
E0000 England England -England comprises the greater portion of the island of Britain. Anciently inhabited by fierce Celtic warriors, Britain was incorporated into the Roman Empire in the 1st century and was for a time a very prosperous province. With the fall of Rome the island was overrun by the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes in the sixth century, who virtually extirpated civilization and Christianity. From this emerged a pletora of petty kingdoms which, despite the onslaught of the Norse Vikings, were gradually civilized and Christianized. By the 10th century they were united as England (i.e., 'Angle-land'). In 1066 the kingdom was subject to a hostile take-over by Duke William of Normandy, who imposed a strongly centralized feudal regime. His descendants continue on the throne to this day. The king is bound by a written charter, Magna Carta (1215). Unlike many other kingdoms, notably France, there is but one Parliament. Although a small place, but thinly populated, England has a number of unusual characteristics. There are surprisingly few noble families in England, only about 50 all told, out of a population of a million or so souls, which forces the king to rely upon commoners for many duties. The king is one of only two anointed monarchs in Europe (the other being that of France). There are two archbishoprics, at Canterbury and York, and two universities, at Oxford and Cambridge. The kingdom is prosperous, having a mixed economy, with shipping, banking, and manufacturing as well as agriculture.
EAR00 England Arundel -Arundel is the title by which the earls of Shropshire --or Salops-- are most commonly known. The Romans took the land from the Ordovices in the 1st century. Overrun by the barbarians in the 6th century, it became part of the Kingdom of Mercia and later passed to England, eventually becoming a county palatine, in defense against the Welch, a status which was supressed in the 13th century. The shire is under the religious authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury. There is a little commerce in Shrewsbury, but otherwise the province is agricultural.
EAR01 England Arundel Market Drayton
EAR02 England Arundel Shrewsbury is the principal town and seat of Shropshire, with some commerce. It is a royal residence.
EAR03 England Arundel Chirk
EAR04 England Arundel Ludlow
EAR05 England Arundel Clun
EBK00 England Buckingham -Buckingham or Buckinghamshire is a county in central England, northwest of London. Following the fall of Roman Britain to the barbarians it for a time formed part of the Kingdom of Mercia, which was later incorporated into England. The shire forms part of the archepiscopal province of Canterbury. Save for some merchants and clothmakers centered in Hertford, the shire is overwhelmingly agricultural in character, raising grains and cattle.
EBK01 England Buckingham Hertford
EBK02 England Buckingham Aylesbury, a rather samll place, is the shire town of Buckinghamshire.
EBK03 England Buckingham Watford
EBK04 England Buckingham High Wycombe
ECG00 England Cambridge -Cambridgeshire is a county in south-eastern England, just north of London. On the fall of Roman Britain it was at different times incorporated in the East Anglian Kingdom, Mercia, the Danelaw, and finally united England. Under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the shire town, Cambridge, is the site of the ancient university of the same name. Although there is some manufacturing in a few of the larger towns, agriculture is the mainstay of the economy.
ECG01 England Cambridge March
ECG02 England Cambridge Cambridge is the principal town of Cambridgeshire, and the site of a university founded in 1209.
ECG03 England Cambridge Huntington
ECG04 England Cambridge Royston
ECG05 England Cambridge Bedford
ECH00 England Cheshire -Cheshire is a county in the northwestern part of England, fronting on the Irish Sea, nestled between Wales and the Pennine Hills. In the 1st century Romans built a fort on the site of an old Celtic earthwork, effectively founding the city. During the Barbarian invasions the shire was one of the centers of Romano-British resistance, not falling to the barbarians until the late 5th century, but later became part of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Mercia. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Canterbury. Agricultural pursuits are the main source of income, but there is some industry in a few of the larger towns.
ECH01 England Cheshire Wilmslow
ECH02 England Cheshire Northwich
ECH03 England Cheshire Chester, the ancient Roman legionary fortress of Deva, is the county town for Chesire. A small place, with some commerce and shipping, and well fortified.
ECH04 England Cheshire Flint has legally been a separate shire since 1284. Among the smallest in England, it is fertile and hilly, producing grains and sheep in some abundance.
ECH05 England Cheshire Nantwich
ECU00 England Cumberland -Cumberland, more clumsily Cumberlandshire, is a located in the northwesternmost corner of England, between the Irish Sea and Scotland, of which it formerly was a part. Anciently part of Roman Britain, it was overrun by the Picts and Scots during the Barbarian invasions, and eventually became the Kingdom of Cumbria. This was later incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumberland, overrun successively by Norsemen and Scots again, and not finally incorporated into England until about the time of the Norman Conquest. The shire is part of the archepiscopal province of York. Cumberland, which has some of the highest hills in Britain, has some industry, but is primarily agricultural in character.
ECU01 England Cumberland Brampton
ECU02 England Cumberland Carlisle
ECU03 England Cumberland Alston
ECU04 England Cumberland Keswick
ECU05 England Cumberland Whitehaven
ECU06 England Cumberland Kirkby Stephen
ECU07 England Cumberland Kendal, a small place, held by His Grace the King himself, but, by an odd circumstance of history arguably claimable by Enguerrand, the Seigneur de Coucy.
ECW00 England Cornwall -Cornwall occupies the southeastern peninsula of England, jutting out into the Atlantic Ocean. One of the last refuges of the Romano-Britons after the Barbarian invasion, it long was known as 'West Wales,' for its Celtic character, which it still retains (a Breton may carry on a conversation with a Cornishman or a Welshman with little difficulty). The shire was incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Wessex (which became the Kingdom of England) only in the 9th century. In this Year of Grace 1337 Good King Edward has conferred upon his son Prince Edward the title of Duke of Cornwall, the first duchy in England, to be reserved to the heir of the throne. Cornwall is under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury. There is a good deal of fishing done in Cornwall, and industries related to fishing (i.e., salting and shipping the fish), and agricultural pursuits are not well rewarded.
ECW01 England Cornwall Bude
ECW02 England Cornwall Saltash
ECW03 England Cornwall Meregissey
ECW04 England Cornwall Falmouth
ECW05 England Cornwall Penzance
EDR00 England Derby -Derby or Derbyshire is a located in the northern midlands of central England. The town itself was apparently founded by the Romans. After the Barbarian invasions it became part of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Mercia, and later of the Danelaw, before being incorporated into England in 917. The shire is under the religious authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury. There is a good deal of mining in the shire, and some other industry, to supplement agriculture.
EDR01 England Derby Chestfield
EDR02 England Derby Derby is the principal town and county seat of Derbyshire, with a good deal of commerce and some industry.
EDR03 England Derby Ashby-de-la-Zouch
EDR04 England Derby Leicester.
EDT00 England Dorsetshire -Dorset or Dorsetshire is a county on the southern coast of England. Anciently a Britano-Celitic kingdom, it was subdued by the Romans in the first Century. The fall of the Roman Empire saw the region --Dornsaeta-- remaining in Romano-British hands into the seventh century. It was then incorporated into Wessex, which in turn became the Kingdom of England. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Canterbury. Although the soil is relatively poor, the province is well watered and the climate rather mild. There is little industry, but the province produces grains, kine, and sheep in some abundance, and there is some fishing along the sea coast.
EDT01 England Dorsetshire Blandford
EDT02 England Dorsetshire Sherborne
EDT03 England Dorsetshire Corfe
EDT04 England Dorsetshire Weymouth
EDT05 England Dorsetshire Lyme Regis
EDU00 England Durham -Durham is a County Palantine in the northeastern corner of England, not far south of the Scottish border. Incoporated into the Roman world rather late, the province was the eastern anchor of Hadrian's Wall. Overrun in the 5th century by the Saxons, the area was incorporated into the Kingdom of Northumberland. During the 9th century it formed part of Bernicia, but in the following century it was definitively incorporated into England, and the county town was elevated to a bishopric. Under the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of Durham has extensive comital rights over the government of the shire. There is a some commerce in Durham and Hartlepol, important ports, and the former the seat of the bishop, but the province is primarily agricultural, and produces a variety of products
EDU01 England Durham Durham is the county town of Durhamshire, and the seat of the Prince Bishop, who is Count Palantine. Fortified by William the Conqueror, the town has a fine cathedral, in the Norman style, dedicated to St. Cuthbert, begun more than a century ago and only recently completed, as well as many other fine chruches.
EDU02 England Durham Wolsingham
EDU03 England Durham Hartlepol
EDU04 England Durham Darlington
EDV00 England Devon -Devonshire is a large county in southwestern England, bounded on the south by the English Channel, on the north by Bristol Channel, in the west by Cornwall, and in the east by Somerset and Dorset. The Roman-Britons of Dumnomia long resisted the Anglo-Saxon onslaught, and not until the 9th century was the area incorporated into Wessex. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Canterbury, but there has been a local bishop in Exeter since the 11th century. There is some shipbuilding and related industry in the large ports, but the province is economically dependent on agriculture and fishing.
EDV01 England Devon Bampton
EDV02 England Devon Barnstable
EDV03 England Devon Exeter
EDV04 England Devon Dartmoor
EDV05 England Devon Oakhampton
EDV06 England Devon Compton
EDV07 England Devon Plymouth is the shire town of Devon, with a fine port and some commerce.
EDV08 England Devon Salcombe
EEX00 England Essex -Essex is a shire in eastern England just northeast of London, on the coast of the the North Sea. Anciently the home of the Trinovantes, it has had a stormy history. One of the earliest regions to be brought under Roman control, it was also one of the earliest to be lost to the invading Saxons, where were well established by the end of the 5th century. For a time a separate kingdom, Essex was incorporated into Mercia by King Offa in the 7th century, and into Wessex by Egbert in the 8th, but was later incorporated in the Danelaw, forming for a time Gunthrum's Kingdom. Not until 914 was the entire province definitively incorporated into England. Essex is part of the archepiscopal province of Canterbury. Blessed with several fine ports, Essex has some industry related to shipping, and produces a variety of agricultural products as well.
EEX01 England Essex Harwich
EEX02 England Essex Colchester
EEX03 England Essex Pleshey
EEX04 England Essex Brunham-on-Crouch
EEX05 England Essex Chelmsford is the county town of Essex, although by no means the largest in the shire.
EGE01 England Guernsey The Channel Isles are a small archipelago a few miles off the coast of France, west of Normandy. Their ancient history is obscure, but in the mid-10th century they were incorporated into the Duchy of Normandy. When France took Normandy to France in 1204 the islands remained in English hands, and King Edward rules them as Duke of Normandy. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Rouen. The islanders, who speak French, make their living from the sea and from their fields, but it is a poor place indeed.
EGL00 England Gloucestershire -Gloucestershire is a county in western England, athwart the line of the River Severn, rubbing up against Wales on its western side. Anciently Glevum, the one of the centers of Roman Britain, it was overrrun by the Anglo-Saxons in the sixth century, ultimately forming part of Mercia until incorporated into England by Alfred the Great in the early tenth century. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Canterbury. There is a good deal of industry in the larger cities and the forest of Dean, particularly relating to ship building, and the province yields a variety of agricultural produce as well.
EGL01 England Gloucestershire Chipping Campden, although a small place, is the site of some minging which is of profit.
EGL02 England Gloucestershire Cheltenham
EGL03 England Gloucestershire Tewksbury
EGL04 England Gloucestershire Gloucester is the county town of Cloucestershire, and a major port and commercial center. Founded by the Romans as Glevum in the Year of Grace 97, it has been a royal town for some centuries nowThere are many famous churches here, and the late King Edward II lies in the cathedral.
EGL05 England Gloucestershire Dean is densely forested, and there is a thriving iron industry, local deposits being worked using locally produced charcoal.
EGL06 England Gloucestershire Bristol is one of the premier ports of England, and the site of a good deal of shipbuilding, clothmaking, and commerce.
EHE00 England Hereford -Hereford is a shire in western England, hard by Wales. In Celtic times home of the Silures, it was incorporated into the Roman world in the 1st century. Not successfully overrun by the Anglo-Saxon Babarians until the mid-7th century, when the province was incorporated into the Kingdom of Mercia, passing to Wessex in the 10th. For some time a County Palantine, Herefordshire lost its autonomy under William the Conqueror, who incorporated into the shire some portions of Wales. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Canterbury. Aside from some industry in the larger towns, the province is purely agricultural, producing a variety of grains and some cattle.
EHE01 England Hereford Leominster
EHE02 England Hereford Llandrindod
EHE03 England Hereford Hereford, the county town of the shire of that name, has been the seat of a bishop since 680. There is some commerce related to the episcopal and royal residences in the town.
EHE04 England Hereford Brecon
EHE05 England Hereford Monmouth
EHM00 England Hampshire -Hampshire --sometimes Hants-- is located in the center of the English southern coast. Anciently the center of Belgic settlement in Britain, it was incorporated into the Roman Empire by Claudius in the mid-1st Century. Overrun by the South Saxons in the sixth century, the province became the heartland of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Wessex, which had its capital at Winchester. It was from this small beginning that the Kingdom of England arose. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Canterbury. The province is quite fertile and well watered, enjoys a mild climate, and has several fine ports, in which there a good deal of commerce and industry.
EHM01 England Hampshire Aldershot
EHM02 England Hampshire Winchester is the county town of Hampshire, and a royal residence, once the capital of Wessex. There is a bishop in residence, and a fine cathedral containing the tombs of many of the greatest of the old Anglo-Saxons kings and queens.
EHM03 England Hampshire Andover
EHM04 England Hampshire Portmouth
EHM05 England Hampshire Southampton
EHM06 England Hampshire Isle of Wight
EKE00 England Kent -Kent is a large county in the southeast of England, surrounded on three sides by water. Anciently the Kingdom of the Celtic Cantii, Kent was the first part of Britain to be invaded by the Romans, first under the great Caesar in the last age of the Roman Republic, and then, nearly a century later in the Year of Grace 43, by Claudius, who incorporated it into the new province of Britannia. Kent was overrun by barbarians in the 5th century, and was for a time an independent Jutish kingdom, before being incorporated successively into Mercia and then Wessex in the 8th century. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Canterbury, in the heart of Kent. The province is fertile, with many fine seaports, and is a prosperous place.
EKE01 England Kent Gravesend
EKE02 England Kent Sandwich, an important seaport, is also one of the Cinque Ports, liable to the crown for the supply of ships to secure the Channel.
EKE03 England Kent Canterbury, the county town of Kent, is a very ancient place. The see of the Archbishop and the Primate of England since 597, there is a fine cathedral. It was here that St. Thomas Beckett was murdered in 1170, and the site is the object of pilgrimages from all over England.
EKE04 England Kent Maidstone
EKE05 England Kent Dover, the ancient Roman port of Dubris, is an important bastion in the defense of England from the sea, and the closest place in Britain to the continent, which lies but 18 miles away across the Channel. One of the Cinque Ports, it has often been attacked by the French, who almost sacked it in 1216.
EKE06 England Kent Romney, one of the Cinque Ports.
ELA00 England Lancashire -Lancashire is a large county in the northwest of England along the Irish Sea. Anciently inhabited by the Brigantes, the area came under Roman rule in the late 1st century. Overrun by the Picts and Scots during the 6th century, it was incorporated in the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Cumbria in the 7th, then into Northumbria in the 8th. Overrun by the Norsemen in late 9th century, it was not incorporated into England until the early 10th. Ecclessiastically the shire is part of the Archdiocese of York. There is a great deal of commerce in the principal ports, as well maritime industry and a good deal of clothmaking. The province is also rather fertile.
ELA01 England Lancashire Furnes
ELA02 England Lancashire Carnforth
ELA03 England Lancashire Lancaster, a Roman legionary garrison town of the late 1st century, is the county town of Lancashire, and its principal place. There is shipping and clothmaking here in abundance.
ELA04 England Lancashire Burnley, a small place of little significance, is held by Milord 89 Henry de Grosmont, but 49 Enguerrand de Coucy has a latent claim to the fief.
ELA05 England Lancashire Preston
ELA06 England Lancashire Bolton
ELA07 England Lancashire Southport
ELA08 England Lancashire Oldham
ELA09 England Lancashire Bootle
ELC00 England Lincolnshire -Lincolnshire is a county in eastern England, about 75 miles north of London. In Celtic times the home of the Coritani, the area was added to the Roman Empire in the 1st century and grew quite prosperous due to its fertility. Overrun by the invading Angles in the 5th and 6th centuries, they incorporated it into the Kingdom of Northumbria. In the 8th century the province became part of Mercia, only to be overrun by the Danes in the 9th and finally incorporated into England in the early 10th century. The shire is part of the archepiscopal province of Canterbury. There is some industry in the larger towns, but the province's prosperity is based on its wonderful fertility, and it produces a variety of grains in great abundance.
ELC01 England Lincolnshire Great Grimsby
ELC02 England Lincolnshire Brigg
ELC03 England Lincolnshire Crowle
ELC04 England Lincolnshire Spilsby
ELC05 England Lincolnshire Lincoln is the county town of the shire of that name. A Roman foundation of the 1st century, it has a wonderful cathedral and it is a center of the woolens trade.
ELC06 England Lincolnshire Tatershall
ELC07 England Lincolnshire Grantham
ELN01 England London London and the surrounding shire of Middlesex, is the heart of England. Anciently a town of the Catuvellauni, London was the capital of Roman Britain, and has been an important city ever since. Overrun by the Middle Saxons in the 6th century (hence "Middlesex"), it was often fought over by the various Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms and by the invading Danes, to emerge after Alfred the Great as the capital of England. A part of the Archdiocese of Canterbury, there is a bishop in residence in the town of Westminster, a few miles upstream from London. The city of London has many noble monuments, including the walls, which, although much patched and repaired, are still largely those of Roman times, the Tower erected by King William the Conqueror, and the famous bridge. Likewise nearby Westminster is the home of great abbey in which English sovereigns are traditionally anointed and crowned. London is by far the largest city in England, and its largest port, the center government, commerce, and industry, and the rest of the shire is rather productive agriculturally as well.
EMN01 England Man The Isle of Man is a small place in the northern part of the Irish Sea, roughly equidistant from England, to the east, Scotland to the north, and Ireland, to the west. Known to the Romans as Monavia, it was settled by Romano-Britons in the 5th century, fleeing the catastrophes of the Barbarian invasions. Brought under Norse control during the ninth century, it was a long time part of the Norse Earldom of the Isles, until sold to Scotland in 1266. Although now subject to the Crown of England, the Lord of Man, ranks as a king in his domain, within which he shares ruling authority with the Tynwald, a locally elected parliament. Subject to the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of York, Man is directly under the aegis of the bishop of Carlisle. The island is poor, and but thinly populated, by an rude people speaking an uncouth tongue called Manx.
ENF00 England Norfolk -Norfolk is a shire in eastern England, fronting on the North Sea. Anciently the home of the Iceni, who offered the fiercest resistance to the Roman conquest, during late Roman times the province formed part of the Litus Saxonicum. Overrun by the northern band of the Angles in the fifth century, Norfolk (i.e., 'North Folk'), became part of the Kingdom of East Anglia. Incorporated into Mercia under Egbert, in the early 9th century, Norfolk formed part of the Danelaw later in the century, comprising part of Guthrum's Kingdom until incorporated into Wessex (i.e., England) in the following century. Norfolk is part of the archepiscopal province of Canterbury, and there is a local bishop in Norwich. The province is quite prosperous, with some industry in the principal towns, a good deal of fishing and shipping in the ports, and much sheepherding.
ENF01 England Norfolk Aylshm
ENF02 England Norfolk Castle Rising
ENF03 England Norfolk Great Yarmouth
ENF04 England Norfolk Norwich is the county town of Norfolk, and the residence of the bishop. The town is a center of the wool trade, and there is some other industry as well.
ENF05 England Norfolk Watton
ENF06 England Norfolk Lynn
ENH00 England Northampton -Northamptonshire --or Northhants-- lies in central England, about 70 miles northwest of London. After Roman Britain was overrun by the barbarians it formed part of Anglo-Saxon Mercia. For a time part of the Danelaw, Northampton was incorproated into England in the 10th century. Subject to the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Northamptonshire is a part of the diocese of Coventy. There is little industry, but the province is fertile, and fine cattle are raised there.
ENH01 England Northampton Rutland is legally a shire and the smallest in England. There is some industry in the shire, which is rather well populated.
ENH02 England Northampton Kettering Castle
ENH03 England Northampton Northampton is the county town of the shire of that name. There is some commerce in the town, but its principal function is as a market for the surrounding agricultural region.
ENH04 England Northampton Daventry
ENO00 England Nottingham -Nottingham, a shire in central England about 75 miles south of York, was anciently the home of the Coritani. Incorporated into the Roman Empire by the late 1st century, the area was overrun by the Angles during the 5th and 6th centuries, and became part of the Kingdom of Mercia. From 878 a part of the Danelaw, Nottinghamshire was incorporated into England in the early 9th century. The province is part of the archepiscopal province of York. There is some industry in the larger towns, and a little mining and foresty, but the economy is primarily agricultural, producing a variety of grains and some fine cattle.
ENO01 England Nottingham Worksop
ENO02 England Nottingham Newark
ENO03 England Nottingham Locksley, a small, poor place in Sherwood Forest is by tradition the home of famous bandit Robyn Hode.
ENO04 England Nottingham Nottingham, the county town of the shire of that name, was of little consequence under the Romans, but grew considerably under the Angles. There is some commerce, and a royal residence, but the town otherwise has little to distinguish itself.
ENU00 England Northumberland -Northumberland is the northernmost shire of England, on the North Sea hard by the Scottish frontier. In Celtic times the home of the Otadini, the area did not come under Roman rule until the early mid-century, when the Emperor Antoninus erected his wall across Britain, and much of it was abandoned later when the Roman frontier was retired to Hadrian's older wall. Overrun by Picts and Scots and Angles in the 5th century, the province became the heart of the Kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century, and was later overrun by the Danes, not being incorporated into England until the early 10th century. Northumberland is under the eccelesiastical jurisdiction of the Archbishop of York, as exercised by the Prince-Bishop of Durham, who holds extensive estates in the county. There is a little industry, but the province is primarily agricultural.
ENU01 England Northumberland Norham
ENU02 England Northumberland Alnwick
ENU03 England Northumberland Rothbury
ENU04 England Northumberland Newcastle-on-Tyne
ENU05 England Northumberland Pruhoe
ENU06 England Northumberland Hexham
ENW00 England North Wales -North Wales, anciently the home of the Ordovices and some other smaller Celtic tribes, was incorporated into the Roman Empire late in the 1st century. On the collapse of the Roman Empire, the only partially-Romanized tribes formed several small Christian kingdoms, which fought among themselves quite frequently, so that attempts at uniting all the Welch --North and South-- never succeeded. Fiercely independent, the northerly Welch successfully resisted the the Anglo-Saxons from the 5th century onwards, and even the Normans, albeit that their southern kin succumbed in the 12th century. However, little more than 50 years ago, Edward I, grandfather of the present sovereign, succeeded in subduing them with a combination of firmness and guile. Since 1301 the heir to the throne has been invested with the title 'Prince of Wales,' but this is largely a formality, and some of the Welch lords remain quiet restive. North Wales is part of the Archdiocese of Canterbury. The province is rather poor in commerce and industry, but there is some mining and agriculture.
ENW01 England North Wales Anglesey
ENW02 England North Wales Denbigh
ENW03 England North Wales Wrexham
ENW04 England North Wales Ruthin
ENW05 England North Wales Bottws-y-Coed
ENW06 England North Wales Caernoven
ENW07 England North Wales Pwliheli
ENW08 England North Wales Dolgelly
ENW09 England North Wales Llanidloes
ENW10 England North Wales Machynlleth
EOX00 England Oxfordshire -Oxfordshire lies in south central England, about 50 miles northwest of London. Anciently one of the centers of Celtic Britain, and there are many notable relics, such as the White Horse of Uffington. In Roman times it was of little consequence. Overrun by the Saxons in the late 5th century, Oxfordshire formed part of the borderlands between Wessex and Mercia, and passed several times back and forth between the two kingdoms and was for a time under Danish rule as well before being united with England in the late 10th century. The shire is part of the archepiscopal province of Canterbury. There is some mining, and some commerce and industry related to the university at Oxford town, but the economy is primarily agricultural,
EOX01 England Oxfordshire Bicester
EOX02 England Oxfordshire Chipping Norton
EOX03 England Oxfordshire Oxford, county town of the shire of that name, is home of the great university founded in 1190, one of the oldest in Europe.
EOX04 England Oxfordshire Maidenhead
EOX05 England Oxfordshire Newbury
EOX06 England Oxfordshire Woodstock
EPM00 England Pembroke -Pembrokeshire occupies the southeastern corner of South Wales, of which it formed a part until Henry II created it a county palatine under an English earl. Subject to the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The province has a surprising amount of commerce and industry, due to mining, shipping, and pilgrimages to the shrine of St. David
EPM01 England Pembroke St. David's is the see of a bishopric founded in the mid-6th century, the premier bishopric of all Wales, and there is a shrine of St. David, who converted the Welch in the 5th century.
EPM02 England Pembroke Carmarthen
EPM03 England Pembroke Pembroke, the shire town of Pembrokeshire, is an important port, as well a notable bastion of English power among the Welch.
EPM04 England Pembroke Llanstephen
ESM00 England Somerset -Somerset is a county on Bristol Channel in western England. The Romans took the area from the Belgae in the 1st century and it prospered under their rule, Aquae Sulis (Bath) being one of the principal towns of Roman Britain. Overrun by the West Saxons in the 7th century, the province passed several times between the Kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex before Alfred the Great created a united England. The province is under the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury. There is some industry in the ports and larger towns, and the baths at Bath attract many visitors, but the province is primarily agricultural in character.
ESM01 England Somerset Bath, the ancient Aquae Sulis, is the largest and most important town in Somersetshire. The warm springs attract many visitors, and their money.
ESM02 England Somerset Weston-Super-Mare
ESM03 England Somerset Porlock
ESM04 England Somerset Glastonbury
ESM05 England Somerset Ilminster
ESM06 England Somerset Taunton, a very minor place, is nevertheless the county town of Somersetshire.
ESR00 England Surrey -Surrey is a county just southwest of Londontown. Overrun by the Middle Saxons upon the collapse of Roman power in Britain in the 5th century, it passed back and forth between various Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms until its incorporation into Wessex under Egbert in the early 9th century, thus becoming part of England. It is under the religious authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The shire is overwhelmingly agricultural in character.
ESR01 England Surrey Croydon
ESR02 England Surrey Woking
ESR03 England Surrey Reigate
ESR04 England Surrey Guilford
EST00 England Staffordshire -Staffordshire lies in the midlands of England, rather more than a hundred miles northwest of London town. The Romans took it from the Cornovii in the 1st century. It was overrun by the Angles during the 6th century, and later formed part of the Kingdom of Mercia before being incorporated into England in the 10th century. It is under the religious oversight of the Archbishop of Canterbury. There is some industry, but the province is primarily agricultural, and prosperously so.
EST01 England Staffordshire Newcastle
EST02 England Staffordshire Stafford is the county town of the shire of that name. There is some commerce here.
EST03 England Staffordshire Tamworth
EST04 England Staffordshire Wolverhampton
ESU00 England Suffolk -Suffolk is a shire in eastern England, just south of Norfolk, with which it shares a common history. Suffolk (i.e., home of the 'South Folk' of the Angles) is part of the archepiscopal province of Canterbury, and there is a local bishop at Dunwich. The province is quite prosperous, with some industry in the principal towns, a good deal of fishing and shipping in the ports, and much sheepherding.
ESU01 England Suffolk Framlingham
ESU02 England Suffolk Eye
ESU03 England Suffolk Bury St Edmunds
ESU04 England Suffolk Mildenhall
ESU05 England Suffolk Ipswich
ESU06 England Suffolk Hadleigh
ESU07 England Suffolk Glemsford
ESW00 England South Wales -South Wales was anciently inhabited by the Silures, who offered considerable resistance to the Romans before being subdued in the late 1st century. The fall of Roman rule saw the region break up into several Celtic-speaking Christian kingdoms, which fought among themselves quite frequently, so that attempts at uniting all the Welch --North and South-- never succeeded. Although the South Welch were able to maintain their independence against the Anglo-Saxons from the 5th century onwards, they were less successful against the Normans, and succumbed, after fierce resistance, to English overlordship in the 12th century. Since 1301 the heir to the throne has been given the title 'Prince of Wales.' The principality is under the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury. There is a little industry, particularly mining, and some shipping along the south coast, but the economy is primarily agricultural, and rather poor.
ESW01 England South Wales Llangurig
ESW02 England South Wales Aberystwyth
ESW03 England South Wales Llandovery
ESW04 England South Wales Llanbyther
ESW05 England South Wales Cardigan
ESW06 England South Wales Cray
ESW07 England South Wales Llandello
ESW08 England South Wales Cardiff
ESW09 England South Wales Swansea
ESX00 England Sussex -Sussex is a shire occupying the southeastern coast of England, only about 30 miles south of London. Anciently inhabited by the Regni, it became part of the Roman Empire in the 1st century, and later formed part of the Litus Saxonicum, a defensive zone intended to keep out the Saxon raiders from across the North Sea. In the 5th century the South Saxons (hence 'Sussex') established a kingdom which endured until incorporated by Offa into Mercia in the late 8th century. The province passed to Wessex in the reign of Egbert, thus becoming part of what would become England. It was in Sussex that William the Conqueror landed in 1066, and near Hastings where he secured his claim to the throne by defeating the Anglo-Saxons under King Harold. Ecclesiastcial authority is vested in the Archbishop of Canterbury. There is a good deal of commerce and industry in some of the larger towns and ports, but the province is largely agricultural in character.
ESX01 England Sussex Hastings
ESX02 England Sussex Cuckfield
ESX03 England Sussex Pulborough
ESX04 England Sussex Eastbourne
ESX05 England Sussex Worthing
ESX06 England Sussex Chichester, is a surprisingly prosperous fief, including as it does a busy port and the old episcopal see of Selsey.
ESY00 England Salisbury -Salisbury is the comital title to which the earls of Wiltshire are customarily invested. Wiltshire is a located in southwestern England, about 75 miles west of London. The area was anciently at the heart of the territory of the Belgae, and was brought under Roman control in the 1st century. The province was overrun by the West Saxons in the 6th century, and was quickly incorporated into their Kingdom of Wessex, which forms the core of England. There is a good deal of commerce in the larger towns, as well as some manufacturing, and the province is agriculturally productive.
ESY01 England Salisbury Swindon
ESY02 England Salisbury Marlborough
ESY03 England Salisbury Towbridge
ESY04 England Salisbury Salisbury, or Old Sarum, is the country town of Wiltshire, from which the earls usually draw their title. The Romans called it Sorviodunum, testifying to its Celtic origins. It has been the site of a bishopric since 1075, and the great cathedral was completed in 1266. The town has some commerce, and is famous for its wollens, and, of course, is the center of an important agricultural region.
ESY05 England Salisbury Hindon
EWK00 England Warwickshire -Warwickshire lies in central England, some about 75 miles northwest of London. Of little importance in Roman times, the province was overrun by the Angles in the 6th century and was for long a part of the Kingdom of Mercia, until incorporated into England by Alfred the great. It is under the religious supervision of the Archibishop of Canterbury, but local religious matters are in the hands of the bishop of Convetry. There is a surprising amount of commerce and some manufacturing, as well as a rather productive agriculture.
EWK01 England Warwickshire Coventry developed around an abbey founded in the 11th century by Earl Leofric, whose wife was the famous Lady Godiva, and it was through the streets of the new town that she made her famous ride. A bishopric was established in 1102, and there are plans to raise a major cathedral. Of late cloth weaving has begun to flourish in the town, and it is likely to have a prosperous future.
EWK02 England Warwickshire Warwick
EWK03 England Warwickshire Bermyngham
EWK04 England Warwickshire Stratford-on-Avon
EWK05 England Warwickshire Worcester
EYS00 England Yorkshire -Yorkshire is a very large county in the north central region of England, nearly 200 miles north of London. Anciently inhabited by a number of tribes, most notably the Brigantes, the area was firmly brought under Roman control in the late 1st century, with the establishment of a legionary base at Eboracum. Overrun by the barbarians in the mid-fifth century, the province became part of the Kingdom of Northumbria. In 866 the invading Norsemen established their own kingdom in the province, which was in turn incorporated into England in 954. The province offered stiff resistance to William the Conqueror, and rose against him in 1069, a rebellion put down with great brutality. The largest county in England, Yorkshire is administratively divided into three 'ridings,' each of which is itself larger than most of the other shires in the kingdom. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of York. There is a good deal of commerce and manufacturing, including woolens, in the larger towns, and the province is very productive agriculturally.
EYS01 England Yorkshire Eston
EYS02 England Yorkshire Yarm
EYS03 England Yorkshire Bowes
EYS04 England Yorkshire Whitby
EYS05 England Yorkshire Helmsley
EYS06 England Yorkshire Leyburn
EYS07 England Yorkshire Masham
EYS08 England Yorkshire Scarborough
EYS09 England Yorkshire Stamford Bridge
EYS10 England Yorkshire York was founded as Eboracum by the Romans around the Year of Grace 70, on the site of an old Celtic stronghold. It was the second largest city in Roman Britain, and has more or less consistently remained so, regardless of whomsoever rules. York has been the seat of a archbishop (whose authority extends not only to northern England but also to all of Scotland) since the 7th century. To provide him with a church worthy of his position, and to give thanks unto the Lord for their prosperity, for more than a half century now the burgers of York have been building a cathedral, dedicated to St. Peter, but long since commonly known as York Minster. There is much industry in the town, including woolens, banking, and trade.
EYS11 England Yorkshire Harrogate
EYS12 England Yorkshire Hull
EYS13 England Yorkshire Market Weighton
EYS14 England Yorkshire Selby
EYS15 England Yorkshire Leeds
EYS16 England Yorkshire Bradford is another of those many small places the overlordship of which is in dispute. Held directly by His Grace, King Edward, it is nevertheless claimed by the French Seinguer 49 Enguerrand de Coucy.
EYS17 England Yorkshire Doncaster
EYS18 England Yorkshire Wakefield
EYS19 England Yorkshire Huddersfield
F0000 France France -France is the most ancient kingdom in Christendom, under a line of anointed sovereigns unbroken since the time of the Romans. In earliest times inhabited by the Celtic Galli, the country was brought under Roman rule by Caesar himself, after ten years of war, in the generation before the coming of Christ. For centuries one of the greatest provinces of the Romans, beginning in the late 4th century it was repeatedly invaded by various barbarians. The Franks arrived in the 5th century, and under Clovis (481-511) established a unified, Christian kingdom centered at Paris. The kingdom grew, and under Charlemagne extended from the Elbe to the Ebro. Partitioned soon after the death of Charlemagne, the western Frankish kingdom remains in the hands of the descendants of Charlemagne. Over the last two centuries the kings have pursued a vigorous policy of centralization, after centuries of splintering (Louis VI, who reigned 1108-1137, barely ruled the Ile de France), and, although there remain many strong dukes and counts, the kingdom is more unified than at any time since Charlemagne, albeit that many provinces retain their own estates and rights. There are many great and rich cities, numerous archbishops and bishops, and several famous universities. The kingdom, the most populous in Europe, has much commerce, banking, manufacturing, and shipping, as well as a rich and diverse agriculture.
FAC00 France Armagnac -Armagnac is a large county in southwestern France, hard by Guyenne and Gascony. In ancient times a part of Aquitainian Gaul, its early history is akin to that of Gascony and Guyenne, passing to the overlordship of the English kings in 1154 with the Duchy of Aquitaine. However, it returned to French overlordship in the late 13th century. The county is under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Auch in the south and of Bordeaux in the north. There is a little commerce and some industry in Auch, seat of the Archbishop and the count, but otherwise the province is primarily agricultural.
FAC01 France Armagnac Fleuvance
FAC02 France Armagnac Condom, although a small place, is the residence of a bishop subject to the authority of the Archbishop of Bordeaux.
FAC03 France Armagnac Auch is the largest town, and capital of Armagnac. It has been the site of an archbishopric since the 9th century.
FAC04 France Armagnac Nogaro
FAC05 France Armagnac Mirande
FAE00 France Aumale -Aumale is a county in northwestern France, on the English Channel. In ancient times the home of the Belgic Morini, it was conquered by Caesar in the century before Christ. The area prospered under the Romans, but in the 5th century was overrun by the Franks, who incorporated it into what would eventually become France. The county is part of the archepiscopal province of Reims. It has a good deal of commerce associated with the port of Dieppe, and is quite productive agriculturally as well.
FAE01 France Aumale Dieppe
FAE02 France Aumale Poix
FAE03 France Aumale Neufchatel
FAG00 France Agenois -The Agenois is a county in southwestern France, abutting on Guyenne to the west. Anciently a part of Aquitiane, its early history is similar to that of Guyenne, Armagnac, and Gascony, passing under English overlordship in 1154, but returning to French authority in the late 13th century. The county is under the religious authority of the Archbishop of Bordeaux. There is a good deal of commerce and industry in the larger towns, and the province is quite fertile as well.
FAG01 France Agenois Villeneuve-sur-Lot
FAG02 France Agenois Agen
FAG03 France Agenois Tonneins
FAG04 France Agenois Casteljaloux
FAG05 France Agenois Nerac
FAG06 France Agenois Mezin
FAJ00 France Anjou -Anjou, to which Maine is appended, is a county western France, in the Loire Valley, between Brittany on the west and the Touraine on the east. Anciently the home of the Celtic Andecavi, it became part of the Roman Empire under Juilius Ceasar, and was later incorporated into the Frankish kingdom. By the 12th century, the counts of Anjou were among the most powerful nobles in France, and under Geoffrey Plantagenet (so named from the use of a sprig of greenery as a symbol), married into English royalty, while other prominent angevins eventually acquired the thrones of Arles and Naples. Becoming part of the dominion of the Kings of England when Henry II ascended his maternal grandfather's throne in 1154, over the next 50 years or so Anjou was gradually lost to France, and by the early fourteenth century the King of France was also the Count of Anjou. The province in subject to the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Tours. Anjou is well watered and enjoys a marine climate. The principal products are wines, grains and cattle.
FAJ01 France Anjou Domfront
FAJ02 France Anjou St Hilaire
FAJ03 France Anjou Conlie
FAJ04 France Anjou Mayenne
FAJ05 France Anjou Fougeres
FAJ06 France Anjou Le Mans
FAJ07 France Anjou Laval
FAJ08 France Anjou La Lude
FAJ09 France Anjou Beaumont-en-Maine
FAJ10 France Anjou Craon
FAJ11 France Anjou Bauge
FAJ12 France Anjou Angers is the capital and largest town of Anjou, with about 40,000-45,000 inhabitants in the town and the environs. There is some manufacturing (armor and the like) and a little banking. There is a bishop and a new university was established this very Year of Grace 1337.
FAL00 France Alencon -Alencon is a county in western France, only a about a hundred English miles west of Paris. In Roman times a part of Gallia Lugdunensis, in the early 4th century it was overrun by the Franks and incorprorated into their kingdom. Included in that part of France which became Normandy in the late 9th century, it passed to the overlordship of the English king with William the Conqueror in 1066, but was restored to French dominion by Philip II Augustus in the early 13th century, who created the county. The county is under the religious jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Rouen. There is some industry and trade in the larger towns, and the province is quite fertile.
FAL01 France Alencon Argentan
FAL02 France Alencon Flers
FAL03 France Alencon Mortagne
FAL04 France Alencon Alencon
FAL05 France Alencon La Fert
FAM00 France Angouleme -Angouleme is a county in western France, some 200 miles southwest of Paris. It was anciently part of Gallia Aquitainia, coming under Roman rule in the century before Christ. Overrun by the Franks in the early 6th century, is passed to the Duchy of Aquitaine under Charlemagne, and for the next five centuries shares a common history with Gascony and Guyenne, not returning to direct French overlordship until the late 13th century. The province is part of the archepiscopal province of Bordeaux. There is little industry or commerce, and the county is overwhelmingly agricultural in nature, and produces a variety of fine wines.
FAM01 France Angouleme Confolens
FAM02 France Angouleme Rouchechouart
FAM03 France Angouleme Ruffec
FAM04 France Angouleme Angouleme, the principal city of the county of that name, was the Roman Iculisma. The seat of the counts of Angouleme since the 9th century, the town also has a bishop in residence. There are many notable chruches, particularly the Cathedral of St. Pierre, now more than two centuries old. There is some commerce and industry in the town.
FAM05 France Angouleme Cognac
FAM06 France Angouleme Barbezieux
FAU00 France Auvergne -Auvergne, which is about 200 miles southeast of Paris, was anciently the home of the Averni, noblest of the Gallic tribes, whose greatest chief was Vercingetorix, subdued by Caesar in 52 B.C. Overrun by the Burgundians in the 5th century, the Auvergne was eventually incorporated into the Frankish Kingdom. After the death of Charlemagne it was for a time disputed between Lothringia and France, until firmly incorporated in the latter by Charles the Bold in 870. The province forms part of the Archdiocese of Bourges. The provincial economy is wholly agricultural, producing grains and pigs in great abundance.
FAU01 France Auvergne Clermont is the capital and chief town of the Auvergne, seat of the counts and of a bishop. Anciently a Roman city, it has many fine buildings, including the cathedral, from which in 1095 Pope Urban II issued his call for the First Crusade. There is some commerce in the town, mostly related to the trade in agricultural produce.
FAU02 France Auvergne Mont Dore
FAU03 France Auvergne Brioude
FAU04 France Auvergne Murat
FAU05 France Auvergne Vic
FAU06 France Auvergne Aumont
FAU07 France Auvergne Aurillac
FAX00 France Auxerre -Auxerre is a county less than a hundred miles southeast of Paris along the Yonne River. In Celtic times the home of the Senones, after Caesar's conquest it became a district of Gallia Lugdunensis. Overrun by the Burgundians in the late 5th century, it passed to the Franks in the following century, and later formed part of the Carolingian Empire, being incorporated into ducal Burgundy, from which the county was created by the 11th century. The province is under the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Sens. There is some banking, trading, and manufacturing in the larger towns, and the countryside around is quite fertile.
FAX01 France Auxerre Sens was founded by the ancient Senones. Renmaed Agedincum by the Romans, it became the see of an archbishop in the Year of Grace 245. It is an important market town.
FAX02 France Auxerre Joigny
FAX03 France Auxerre Auxerre proper was a Gallic town before becoming the Roman Autessodurum. In addition to the residence of the count, it is the see of a bishop. There is some commerce here.
FAX04 France Auxerre Varzy
FBA00 France Bar -Bar is a duchy in the eastern part of France, up against the frontier of the Empire, of which it in early times formed a part of the Duchy of Lorraine. It passed to France in the early 12th century. The duchy is under the ecclesiastical authority of the Prince-Bishop of Verdun, who is in turn subject to the Archbishop of Trier. It is largely agricultural in character, but there is some commerce in the larger towns.
FBA01 France Bar Souilly
FBA02 France Bar Ligny
FBA03 France Bar Bar-le-Duc is the principal town of the duchy, a small but pleasant place.
FBA04 France Bar Domremy
FBG00 France Bigorre -Bigorre is a county in the south of France, up against the Pyrennes. Anciently a part of Aquitaine, its history is as that of Armagnac and Gascony for many centuries. After passing under English overlordship in 1154, the province was regained from France by Philip III in the late 13th century. It is part of the archepiscopal province of Auch. The county is poor, the soils rather infertile, and there is little commerce.
FBG01 France Bigorre Avreau
FBG02 France Bigorre Bigorre
FBG03 France Bigorre Tabres
FBG04 France Bigorre Luchon
FBG05 France Bigorre Luz
FBG06 France Bigorre Lourdes
FBI00 France Brie -Brie is a county in central France, formerly a part of the Ile de France. It's early history is much as that of Paris. The county is part of the archepiscopal province of Sens. There is some commerce in the larger towns, but the economy is primarily agricultural, grains and livestock being the principal products.
FBI01 France Brie Joinville
FBI02 France Brie Brienne
FBI03 France Brie Troyes
FBI04 France Brie Boisssy-en-Brie
FBI05 France Brie St Florent
FBL00 France Blois -Blois is an important county on the Loire between Orleans and Tours, less than a hundred English miles southwest of Paris. In ancient times a place of no consequence in the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis, it was incorporated into the Frankish Kingdom in the 6th century. A line of counts was firmly established by the 11th century, and in the 12th the county grew considerably, constituting as it did a major frontier zone against the power of England's Henry II, who in that age ruled more than half of France. Since then the influence of the county has declined. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Sens. The province has some commerce in the larger towns, but is primarily agricultural.
FBL01 France Blois Beaugency
FBL02 France Blois Chambord
FBL03 France Blois Blois
FBL04 France Blois Valenczy
FBL05 France Blois Chaumont
FBN00 France Bearn -Bearn (pronounced 'barn') is a viscounty in southeastern France, hard by the Pyrenees up against Gascony. It first develops a distinctive history in the 6th century, when it was conquered by Basques northwards from Spain. Eventually passing to the control of Aquitaine in the 9th century, the viscounty became virtually independent during the 11th century, a situation which has not changed, as it is a fief of the powerful Counts of Foix. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Auch.
FBN01 France Bearn Orthez is the captial, ableit not the principal town, of Bearn, with some industry related to the viscountal administration.
FBN02 France Bearn Pau is the principal town, and main manufacturing center of Bearn, and much preferred by the vicomte over his official capital of Orthez, which is much smaller and poorer.
FBN03 France Bearn
FBN04 France Bearn Larun is a small city, with little to distinguish itself save that it is the seat of a bishop, and thus the principal ecclesiastical center of Bearn.
FBN05 France Bearn Urdos
FBO00 France Bourbon -Bourbon, properly the Bourbonnais, is one of the premier duchies of France. The area was incorporated into the Roman Empire by Julius Caesar, passed through the barbarian invasions, was for a time part of the Burgundian lands, and eventually was incorporated into the Frankish Kingdom. In 1272 the duchy passed into the hands of a cadet branch of the royal family, the house of Bourbon. Ecclesiastical authority is rather fragmented, for there is no bishop resident within the duchy, and portions of the it are subject to the archibishops of Sens, Bourges, and Lyon. The soil is fertile, and wheat and pigs are a major product, but there is little industry.
FBO01 France Bourbon Moulins is the traditional capital of the Bourbonnais, but it is a poor, small place and the duke frequently spends his time away.
FBO02 France Bourbon Taligny
FBO03 France Bourbon Souvigny
FBO04 France Bourbon La Palisse
FBO05 France Bourbon Montlucon
FBO06 France Bourbon Cousset
FBO07 France Bourbon Vichy
FBO08 France Bourbon St Eloy
FBO09 France Bourbon Gannant
FBO10 France Bourbon Chatel-Guyon
FBO11 France Bourbon Comment
FBO12 France Bourbon Rive-de-Allier
FBO13 France Bourbon Riom
FBR00 France Brittany -Brittany (Bretagne in French and Breiz in Breton, both cognate with 'Britain'), is one of the greatest duchies of France, a large peninsula jutting westwards into the Atlantic, with a distinctive history and culture. The ancient Amorica, Brittany had an advanced culture even before it was settled by the Celts sometime after 1000 B.C. Conquered by Julius Caesar in the last century of the Roman Republic, it was never fully Romanized. Nevertheless, after the collapse of the Roman Empire the region actually held out again the barbarians for some time, in the 5th century attracting Celto-Roman refugees fleeing the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain, so that a distinct Celtic culture survived. United in the 9th century, Brittany was only marginally associated with the Carolingian Empire, and threw off Frankish rule entirely under Duke Conan I (987-992). Thereafter, Brittany remained an independent duchy for centuries. Although gradually falling into the French orbit, Brittany remains semi-independent. Brittany falls under the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Tours. The duchy has a rugged indented coast, with many small ports. Fishing is a major industry, but there is some agriculture in the hilly, barren interior. The climate is very favorable.
FBR01 France Brittany St Quay
FBR02 France Brittany Perros-Guirec
FBR03 France Brittany Morlaix
FBR04 France Brittany St Pol
FBR05 France Brittany Brest, although blessed with a fine harbor, is a poor place, inhabited mostly by fisherman. Nevertheless, as the westernmost place in Brittany, its possession has long been considered vital to the establishment of one's claim to the duchy; "He is not Duke of Brittany who is not Lord of Brest," as the ancient saying goes.
FBR06 France Brittany Mt-St-Michel
FBR07 France Brittany St Malo
FBR08 France Brittany Dinan
FBR09 France Brittany Penthieve
FBR10 France Brittany Corlay
FBR11 France Brittany Carhaix
FBR12 France Brittany Morgat
FBR13 France Brittany Vitre
FBR14 France Brittany Rennes, the capital of Brittany, is rather Frenchified. Well populated, there is a little industry and some riverine commerce. The town is the seat of a bishop.
FBR15 France Brittany Rohan
FBR16 France Brittany Loudeac
FBR17 France Brittany Mur
FBR18 France Brittany Gourin
FBR19 France Brittany Crozon
FBR20 France Brittany Bain de Bretagne
FBR21 France Brittany La Guerche
FBR22 France Brittany Ploermel
FBR23 France Brittany Pontivy
FBR24 France Brittany Quimperle
FBR25 France Brittany Concarheau
FBR26 France Brittany Quimper
FBR27 France Brittany Chateaubriand
FBR28 France Brittany Redon
FBR29 France Brittany Vannes
FBR30 France Brittany Hennebont
FBR31 France Brittany Nantes
FBR32 France Brittany St Nazaire
FBU00 France Berry -Berry was anciently the home of the Bituriges, subdued by the Romans in the century before Christ. For long centuries a prosperous part of the Roman Empire, in the 5th century the region was overrun by the Franks and incorporated into their kingdom. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Bourges, who resides in the comital capital. There is a little commerce and some manufacturing in the larger towns, but the province is primarily agricultural in character.
FBU01 France Berry Aix-en-Bourges
FBU02 France Berry Bourges is the largest town in Berry, seat of the king as count, and the residence of an archbishop since the 3rd century.
FBU03 France Berry Mehun
FBU04 France Berry St Amand
FBU05 France Berry Ligniers
FBU06 France Berry Chateauroux
FBU07 France Berry Chatillon
FBU08 France Berry Pont-du-Cher
FBU09 France Berry Le Chatre
FBU10 France Berry Argentan
FBU11 France Berry Le Blanc
FBU12 France Berry Culan
FBU13 France Berry Aigurand
FBU14 France Berry Creuse
FBU15 France Berry La Croisiere
FBY00 France Burgundy -Burgundy is one of the premier duchies for France, Burgundy (Bourgogne) occupies an extensive area in east central France. Incorpoated into the Roman world by Julius Caesar, the area was thoroughly Romanized and Christianized by the time the Barbarian invasions arrived. In the 5th century the Burgundians, a barbarian tribe, invaded the area and established a kingdom which was incorporated into the Frankish Kingdom in 534. On the partitioning of the Carolinian Empire in the 9th century, two Burgundies emerged, one eventually to become the Kingdom of Arles, and the other the Duchy of Burgundy, which was further partitioned, so that the more easterly portions became the Franche-Comte. The present ducal house descends from a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, which was installed in Burgundy in 1031. Ecclesiastical authority is held by the Archbishop of Lyon. The region is prosperous, fertile and with numerous trade routes.
FBY01 France Burgundy Chaumont-sur-Marne
FBY02 France Burgundy Montigny
FBY03 France Burgundy Langres
FBY04 France Burgundy Chatillon-sur-Marne
FBY05 France Burgundy Champlitte
FBY06 France Burgundy Baigneaux
FBY07 France Burgundy Montbard
FBY08 France Burgundy Dijon
FBY09 France Burgundy Poilly
FBY10 France Burgundy Cote de Beaune
FBY11 France Burgundy Arnay-le-Duc
FBY12 France Burgundy Chalons-sur-Soane
FBY13 France Burgundy Autun
FCA00 France Champagne -Champagne is a large county in northeastern France, which gets its name from the Latin "campania," for "plain," which describes the county's principal geographic characteristic. Originally a part of Gallia, the area was incorporated into the Roman world by Julius Caesar, became part of the Frankish Kingdom in the fifth century, but became autonomous under County Robert in 864 following the dissolution of the Carolingian Empire. Under Robert's descendants semi-independent --sometimes very independent-- county flourished for over four centuries. In the late 13th century the reigning countess, Jeanne (who was also Queen of Navarre in her own right), married Philip IV of France, with the result that upon her death the county passed to their son, Louis X, and through him to the crown of France in 1314. Ecclesiastical authority is shared among the archepiscopal provinces of Sens, Reims, Trier, and Lyon. The sprawling county has a diversified econony, with some commerce and banking in the larger towns, some riverine trade, and a wide variety of agricultural produce.
FCA01 France Champagne Ste Menehould
FCA02 France Champagne Vouziers
FCA03 France Champagne Pont Flaverge
FCA04 France Champagne Reims is the capital and principal town of the County of Champagne, well populated, with a flourishing industry. The cathedral, which is the see of an archbishop, is also by tradition the site of the coronation of the Kings of France.
FCA05 France Champagne Chateau-Thiery
FCA06 France Champagne Rouvres
FCA07 France Champagne Chalons-sur-Marne
FCA08 France Champagne Vitry-le-Francois
FCA09 France Champagne Dampierre-sur-l'Aube
FCA10 France Champagne Provins
FCA11 France Champagne Melun
FCE00 France Clermont -Clermont is a large county just northwest of Paris. Anciently a part of Gallia Belgica, it was made part of the Roman world in the century before Christ. Overrun by the Franks in the late 5th century, it has formed part of France ever since. Created a county as a result of the Norse raids in the 10th and 11th centuries, by the area, by then known as the Vexin, was an important frontier zone protecting Paris. The Vexin passed from the direct overlordship of France to the authority of England's Henry II, who ruled in Normandy, in the late 12th century, but was restored to France by Philip II Augustus early in the 13th century. The county is under divided religious jurisdiction, portions being subject to the Archbishops of Reims and of Rouen. There is a good deal of commerce and industry in the larger towns, and the county is a fertile agricultural region as well.
FCE01 France Clermont Clermont
FCE02 France Clermont Beauvais
FCE03 France Clermont Pontoise
FCE04 France Clermont Vernon
FCE05 France Clermont Mantes
FCO00 France Comminges -Comminges is a county in southwestern France, between Toulouse and the Pyrennean counties. Anciently a part of Aquitaine, its history for the most part is linked with that of Gascony and Guyenne. Under English overlordship from 1154, when Henry II acquired Aquitaine, Comminges returned to the bosom of France in the late 13th century. The county lies within the archespiscopal province of Auch. It is purely agricultural in character.
FCO01 France Comminges Martres
FCO02 France Comminges Aurig
FCO03 France Comminges St Martory
FCO04 France Comminges St Gaudens
FCO05 France Comminges Boulougne-sur-Gesse
FCO06 France Comminges Tete de Garonne
FCR00 France Chartres is a large province about 50 miles southwest of Paris. Anciently a part of Roman Gaul, the area was overrun by the Franks in the 5th century and has formed a part of France ever since. It is under the religious authority of the Archbishop of Sens. There is a good deal of commerce in the province, and many pilgrims make their way to the great cathedral at Chartres town, but the principal mainstay of the life is agriculture.
FCR01 France Chartres Beaumont
FCR02 France Chartres Ablis
FCR03 France Chartres Chartres is the principal town of the province of the same name, an ancient city predating the Romans, who called it Autricum. The cathedral, Notre Dame de Chartres, built from 1194 to 1225, is the greatest in Europe.
FCR04 France Chartres Dunois
FCR05 France Chartres La Ferte
FCR06 France Chartres Chateaudun
FCT00 France Carlat -Carlat is a county in central France, between the Augerne and Limousin. Anciently a part of Aquitaine, its history is closely linked with that of Guyenne and Gascony. Passing to English control under Henry II in 1154, it returned to French overlordship in the late 12th century. The county is under the religious authority of the Bishop of Tulle, who is in turn subject to the Archbishop of Bourges. There is little commerce, and the province is primarily agricultural.
FCT01 France Carlat Ussel
FCT02 France Carlat Egletons
FCT03 France Carlat Treignac
FCT04 France Carlat Ventadour
FCT05 France Carlat Tulle
FEV00 France Evreux -Evreux is a county about two days ride west of Paris. In Roman times an area of little consequence, it passed to the Frankish Kingdom during the barbarian invasions of the late 5th century. The county was formed in the 10th century to help cope with Norse raids up the Seine, but in the following century passed to the Norse Duchy of Normandy, thereby falling under English overlordship in the 11th century when William of Normandy took the throne of England. Evreux was regained for France in the early 13th century by Philip II Augustus. The county has its own bishop, at Evreux, who is subject to the Archbishop of Rouen. It is primarily agricultural, though there are some merchants in the larger towns.
FEV01 France Evreux Evreux, the Roman Mediolanum, is the seat of a bishop. There is some commerce in the town.
FEV02 France Evreux Barnay
FEV03 France Evreux Dreux
FEV04 France Evreux L'Aigle
FEV05 France Evreux Gace
FFL00 France Flanders is the northernmost province of France, and, indeed, speaks Flemish in part rather than French. Anciently part of Gallia Belgica, it was subdued by Caesar himself, and was thereafter for centuries a part of the Roman world. In the late 5th century it was overrun by various barbarians, but eventually incorporated into the Frankish Kingdom. A line of counts established in the 9th century brought the province enromous power and influence, but the rise of commerce and industry in the main cities have made the burgers restive, and both royal and comital authority has frequently been challenged. Ecclesiastically, Flanders is under the Archbishop of Reims. Although there is considerable agricultural output, the ecomony is extremely developed, with woolens, lace making, banking, shipbuilding, and many other industries flourishing the cities.
FFL01 France Flanders Bruges
FFL02 France Flanders Ghent
FFL03 France Flanders Wingene
FFL04 France Flanders Dunkerque
FFL05 France Flanders Courtrai
FFL06 France Flanders Ypres
FFL07 France Flanders Calais
FFL08 France Flanders Boulogne
FFL09 France Flanders Lille
FFL10 France Flanders St. Omer
FFX00 France Foix -Foix, in southwestern France, hard against the Pyrenees, was anciently a part of Gallia Narbonensis (added to Rome in 121 B.C.), passed on the fall of the Empire to the Visigoths and then into the hands of the Kings of the Franks, before passing for a time to the control of the Counts of Toulouse, and later the Kings of Aragon. On the wrong side during the Albigensian Crusade, Foix passed to the house of Carcassone, who have used it to greatly strengthen their influence in the south of France. Foix is subject to the ecclesiastical authority of the archbishop of Narbonne. The region is poor, but not impoverished, and is well managed. Agriculture is the principal occupation, but there is some industry as well.
FFX01 France Foix Pamiers, a small, poor town, is the seat of a bishop, who is the principal religious authority in the County of Foix.
FFX02 France Foix Foix, capital of the county of the same name, is a small place, of some 25,000 souls, including its environs. There is a little industry, mostly connected with the comital court.
FFX03 France Foix St Girons
FFX04 France Foix Viella
FFX05 France Foix Tarascon-en-Foix
FFX06 France Foix Aulus
FFX07 France Foix Andorra, a small place perched on the Pyrenees, is not legally a part of the County of Foix, but rather since 1278 a condominium of the Count of Foix and the Prince Bishop of Seo de Urgel, in the county of the same name, in Catalonia, the two sharing authority. Although it has only about 16,000 inhabitants (who speak Catalan, not French), Andorra is nevertheless rather prosperous, due to its control of one of the principal passes over the Pyreness between France and the Spains. Under the ecclesiastical authority of the Prince Bishop of Seo de Urgel, Andorra falls into the Archepiscopal province of Tarragona, in Catalonia.
FFZ00 France Forez -Forez is a large county in southwestern France, up against the Arelate. In Roman times portions of the present county were part of the provinces of Narbonensis, Aqutainia, and Lugdunensis. Overrun by Visigoths, Burgundians, and finally Franks, the ownership of the area was confirmed to France in the final division of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century. The county is under the religious authority of the Archbishop of Lyon. There is little commerce here, but it is a fertile land.
FFZ01 France Forez Roanne
FFZ02 France Forez Feurs, the Roman Forum Segussiavorum, is the principal town of Forez.
FFZ03 France Forez Pontaumur
FFZ04 France Forez Rive de Gier
FFZ05 France Forez Thier
FFZ06 France Forez Clermont
FFZ07 France Forez Royal
FFZ08 France Forez Montbrison
FFZ09 France Forez Boen
FFZ10 France Forez Amber
FFZ11 France Forez Issoire
FFZ12 France Forez Puy de Dome
FFZ13 France Forez St Etienne
FFZ14 France Forez Firminy
FFZ15 France Forez Monts Dore
FGA00 France Gascony -Gascony is a large duchy in southwestern France. Anciently part of Aquitainia, it was incorporated into the Roman world by Julius Caesar and thoroughly Romanized. Overrun by the Visigoths in the early 5th century, and settled by Basques (hence 'Gascony,' from 'Vascones,' the Latin for Basque) in the 6th and 7th, the area became part of the great Duchy of Aquitaine. The marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to England's future Henry II in 1152 brought Gascony under English control, a control disputed by the Crown of France. The Duchy is under the ecclesiastical authority of the archbishop of Auch. Gascony is relatively wealthy. Despite a rather barren coastal region, and the great massif of the Pyrenees (which often exceed 10,000 feet), the land is suitable for cattle and sheep, and there are many fertile valleys, growing a variety of grains.
FGA01 France Gascony Borne
FGA02 France Gascony Mont-de-Marsan
FGA03 France Gascony Mimizan
FGA04 France Gascony Tartas
FGA05 France Gascony Maransin
FGA06 France Gascony Dax
FGA07 France Gascony Baiona, a Basque speaking city, is the capital and principal town of Gascony, although administratively the duchy is usually linked with Guienne and ruled from Bordeaux. An important port, there is a good deal of local industry in Baiona (in French Bayonne). The town is the seat of a bishop.
FGA08 France Gascony Lapurd
FGP00 France Grand Pre -Grand Pre lies in northeastern France, on the frontier of the Holy Roman Empire. In Roman times a part of Belgica, it passed to the Franks in the 5th century. The county was created in Carolingian times. Grand Pre is under the religious autority of the Archbishop of Reims. There is some commerce in the larger towns, but the province is primarily agricultural.
FGP01 France Grand Pre Raucourt
FGP02 France Grand Pre Sedan
FGP03 France Grand Pre Beaumont
FGP04 France Grand Pre La Chesne
FGP05 France Grand Pre Grand Pre
FGS00 France Guise -Guise is a duchy in northern France, hard by the frontier of the Empire. Anciently a part of Gallia Belgica, passed to the Franks upon the fall of Rome in the 5th century, it became a county in Carolingian times and later was made a duchy. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Prince-Bishop of Cambria, who is in turn subject to the Archbishop of Reims. There is a good deal of commerce in the duchy, and the manufacture of woolen cloth and lace, and the fields are rather fertile.
FGS01 France Guise Rocroi
FGS02 France Guise Hirson
FGS03 France Guise LeCateau
FGS04 France Guise Vervins
FGS05 France Guise Guise
FGU00 France Guyenne -Guyenne, or Guienne, shares its earliest history with Gascony, both provinces once forming part of Aquitaine. Relations between the dukes, who since 1154 have been the kings of England, and the Crown of France has always been testy. Guyenne is under the religious authority of the Archbishop of Bordeaux. There is considerable commerce and industry in the province, particularly connected with the wine trade, which flourishes, and a variety of agricultural produce as well.
FGU01 France Guyenne Marenne
FGU02 France Guyenne Royan
FGU03 France Guyenne Mirambeau
FGU04 France Guyenne Lesparre
FGU05 France Guyenne Blaye
FGU06 France Guyenne Medoc
FGU07 France Guyenne St Emillion
FGU08 France Guyenne Cadillac
FGU09 France Guyenne Bordeaux is the capital and chief city of Guyenne and all Aquitaine, as has been the case since Gallic and Roman times, when it was called Burdigala. In addition to the ducal court, the town is the seat of an archbishopric established in 314. There is a great deal of commerce, most notably the shipment of wine.
FGU10 France Guyenne Buch
FGU11 France Guyenne La Reole
FGU12 France Guyenne Graves
FGU13 France Guyenne Bazas
FGU14 France Guyenne Barsac
FGU15 France Guyenne Captieux
FLD00 France Languedoc -The Languedoc is an important county in southern France, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the south, between the Rhone River in the east and the massif central in the west. Anciently part of the Roman Gallia Transalpina, the region was throughly Romanized even before the Christian Era. Settled by the Visigoths during the 5th century, the area passed to the Franks during the Dark Ages, and in 924 it fell to the counts of Toulouse. From the 10th through the 12th centuries the Languedoc became the center of an important cultural flowering, with a distinct language (the 'langue d'oc,' a distinct tongue with many difference from French, most notably the use of 'oc' for 'yes' rather than 'oil,' commonly known as 'Provencal.' Note that the linguistic boundries of the Languedoc are much wider than the political ones). This flowering came to an abrupt end with the rise of the Albigensians (from 'Albi,' in Toulouse), a most vile heresy which had to b destroyed in a Holy Crusade preached by His Holiness Pope Innocent III in 1209. This resulted in the extirpation of the heresey and the return of many souls to the bosom of Holy Mother the Church. Ecclesiastical authority is divided, with some areas of the county being subject to the Archbishop of Toulouse, but most to that of Narbonne. There is a great deal of industry in many of the coastal cities, including shipping and weaving. In the interior there is a great deal of wine produced, as well as grains and some cattle and sheepherding.
FLD01 France Languedoc Montpelier, the principal city of the Languedoc, has a rather large population (some 65,000 including the environs). There is an active port, with related shipbuilding and servicing and a cloth industry. The city is the see of a bishop and there is a university, founded in 1289. For some time now the city has been enfoeffed to the 110 King of Mallorca since the late 13th century, but remains a part of France.
FLD02 France Languedoc Lodeve
FLD03 France Languedoc Badarieux
FLD04 France Languedoc Sete
FLD05 France Languedoc Beziers
FLD06 France Languedoc St Pons
FLD07 France Languedoc Carcassone
FLD08 France Languedoc Mirepoix
FLI00 France Limousin -Limousin lies in the southwestern part of central France. In Celtic times the home of the Lemovices, it fell under Roman rule in the century before Christ, and passed to the Franks in the 6th century. From Carolingian times the area was part of the Duchy of Aquitaine, with Gascony and Guyenne and much else beside, passing to English overlordship in 1154, and not returning to direct French rule until the late 13th century. The province is subject to the religious authority of the Archbishop of Bourges, exercised through the bishop of Limoges. There is a great cathedral under construction, and several other notable religious buildings in the town. The Limousin is famous for its cattle and its tapestries, and it produces a variety of agricultural produces as well.
FLI01 France Limousin St Leonard
FLI02 France Limousin Limoges is the principal town and capital of the viscounty of Limousin, as has been the case since Roman times. There is a bishop in residence, and some clothworking.
FLI03 France Limousin St Junien
FLI04 France Limousin St Yrieux
FLI05 France Limousin Chaluz
FLM00 France LaMarche -The Marche is a county in south central France. From earliest times the region has been part of Aquitaine, first under the Gauls and continuing under the Romans, the Franks, and Carolingians, thus sharing a common history with Guyenne, Gascony, Armagnac and the other regions of Aquitaine. It was organized as a "march" to defend the northern frontier of the great Duchy of Aquitaine in the 10th century, passed to English overlordship with the rest of Aquitaine in 1154, but returned to French overlordship in the 13th century, when it under the comital authority of the House of Lusignan. The direct line of the Lusignans died out later in the century, and the county has recently been entrusted to 176 Louis de Bourbon, a son of the Duke of Bourbon and cousin to His Grace the King of France. La Marche is under the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Bourges. There is little commerce, for the province is primarily agricultural, raising various grains and particularly sheep.
FLM01 France LaMarche Boussac
FLM02 France LaMarche Guerat
FLM03 France LaMarche La Souterraine
FLM04 France LaMarche Aubusson
FLM05 France LaMarche Bourganeuf
FLM06 France LaMarche Lussac
FLM07 France LaMarche Le Dorat
FLM08 France LaMarche Eymouthiere
FLY00 France Lyon -Lyon is one of the most ancient cities in France. A Gallic establishment known to the Romans as Lugdunum, Julius Caesar made it the capital of one of the provinces of Gaul, and for centuries it flourished as the largest city in Europe north and west of Rome. On the fall of Rome it was for a time incorporated into the Burgundian Kingdom, and later came under Frankish rule. After the partition of the Carolingian Empire it became part of the Holy Roman Empire, until it passed to France in 1307. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Lyon. The county prospers due to its excellent soil and fortunate location at the junction of several trade routes.
FLY01 France Lyon Bellevile
FLY02 France Lyon Lyon, the ancient Lugdunum, is the capital and principal town of the Lyonnais. It is the seat of the senior archbishop (founded in A.d. 178) and Primate of France. There is a good deal of banking centered in the town, which is an important commercial emporium and the center of a considerable cloth industry.
FLY03 France Lyon Givors
FMA00 France Macon -Macon is a large county in southeastern France, between Burgundy and Lyon. In ancient times a home of the fierce Aedui, under the Romans the area formed part of Lugdunensis. It passed to the Burgundians in the mid-5th century, and was not incorporated into the Frankish Kingdom until the late 6th century. The division of Charlemagne's Empire in the 9th century found it briefly part of Lothringia, but by the end of the century it was firmly attached to France. The county is subject to the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Lyon, but there is a bishop in Macon proper. Aside from some industry and commerce in the larger towns, the county is largely agricultural in character.
FMA01 France Macon Decize
FMA02 France Macon Tournos
FMA03 France Macon Beaujolais
FMA04 France Macon Le Creusot
FMA05 France Macon Montceau
FMA06 France Macon Macon is the chief town of the county of that name. The residence of a bishop, it has some manufacturing, of lace and such, and is an important market town.
FMA07 France Macon Cluny, an otherwise undistinguished fief, is the site of the greatest of all monastic foundations, the Benedictine Order of Cluny, established in 909 by Berno de Baume, and the model for the great reform of the cloistered orders which followd in the 11th and 12th centuries. It is a prosperous agricultural region.
FMA08 France Macon Parary-le-Monial
FMA09 France Macon Charlieu
FMF00 France Montfort -Montfort lies just to the south of Paris. The county's early history is tied up in that of Paris and the Ile de France. A seigneurie as late as the 11th century, Montfort was raised to comital status in the 13th century, when its most notable lord, Simon de Montfort (c. 1160-1218), led the Armies of Christ in the extirpation of of the heretical Albigenses.
FMF01 France Montfort Corbiel
FMF02 France Montfort Rambouillet
FMF03 France Montfort Maleshers
FMF04 France Montfort Etamps
FMR00 France Mortain -Mortain, anciently a part of Roman Gaul, was incorporated into the Frankish kingdom in the late 5th century. It was constituted as a county within the duchy of Neustria as a result of the raids of the Norsemen, eventually being incorporated into their Duchy of Normandy in the late 9th century, passing later into the hands of the English. It was regained for France by Philip Augustus in the early 13th century. The county is under the religious jurisdiction of the Bishop of Avranches, who is in turn under the Archbishop of Rouen. There is a some commerce in the larger towns, notably Avranches, and the county is quite fertile.
FMR01 France Mortain Vire
FMR02 France Mortain Hambye
FMR03 France Mortain Mortain is the comital seat, a small place, but well favored.
FMR04 France Mortain Avranches is a sizable town, the seat of a bishop, with a number of fine churches.
FNA00 France Narbonne -Narbonne is a province in southeastern France, near the Pyrennes on the Mediterranean. The area anciently formed the core of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis. During the Dark Ages it was overrun successively by the Visigoths, the Saracens, and the Franks, who incorporated it into Charlemagne's Empire. A part of France ever since, it has at times drifted into the Catalan orbit. The Archbishop of Narbonne holds ecclesiastical authority over the province and much of the surrounding area. There is considerable commerce in the towns, and the region is fertile.
FNA01 France Narbonne Narbonne was founded by the Romans in 118 B.C., and was and remains the principal city of its region, despite centuries of war and occupation by Visigoth, Saracen, Frank, and occasionally Catalan. For a time rule of the city was divided between the Counts of Toulouse and the archbishops (the see dates from the 4th century). The town is an important center of industry, with clothmaking and shipbuilding prominent.
FNA02 France Narbonne
FNA03 France Narbonne
FND00 France Normandy -Normandy was anciently a part of Roman Gaul. It was incorporated into the Frankish Kingdom in the fifth century. In 9th century it was frequently beset by raids of the Northmen, so much so that in 911 King Charles III of France conceded the area to one of the premier Norman princes, Rollo, who promptly became the fist Duke of Normandy. Normans soon proved among the most efficient warriors and administrators in Christendom. In 1066 Rollo's descendant, Willian the Bastard, conquered England, establishing the present dynasty there. Upon his death, William partitioned his lands, so that Normandy went to a different son than did England, but in 1106 the English King Henry I regained control of the duchy. In 1144, during the long war between Henry's nephew Stephan of Blois, who held the throne of England, and Henry's daughter Matilda, who wanted it, the latter captured Normandy. As a result, when Matilda's son Henry II came to the throne in 1154, Normandy was again reunited with England. A half-century later, however, in 1204, Henry's son King John lost Normandy to Philip II of France. Although the English title was formally renounced in 1259, many in England regard this as an illegal act by the not-very-bright Henry III, and thus there remains an English claim. Under French rule Normandy has been granted its own Estates and even has a charter of liberties. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Rouen. Normandy is by some reckonings the richest province of France, with busy sea and river ports, some banking and commerce, and some industry, including cloth making. It is fertile, producing many crops, and is noted for its livestock.
FND01 France Normandy Caux
FND02 France Normandy Harfleur is the principal port of Normandy, well fortified, and blessed with considerable prosperity.
FND03 France Normandy Barfleur
FND04 France Normandy Rouen is the capital and principal town of Normandy, possession of which is traditionally regarded as a sign of ducal authority. It is a busy river port, with shipbuilding and chandlering, as well as a number of other industries, including banking and clothmaking. It is the seat of an Archbishop as well as of the provincial estates.
FND05 France Normandy Honfleur
FND06 France Normandy Cotentin
FND07 France Normandy Louviers
FND08 France Normandy Deauville
FND09 France Normandy Caen
FND10 France Normandy Bayeaux
FND11 France Normandy Carentan
FND12 France Normandy Coutances
FND13 France Normandy Montgomery
FND14 France Normandy Aunay
FND15 France Normandy St Lo
FNE00 France Nevers -Nevers is a large county in eastern France, between Auxerre and Burgundy. The county was brought directly under the crown in the late 10th century, when it was severed from dependence upon Ducal Burgundy, of which it was formerly a part. It is subject to the Archbishop of Sens, but there is a bishop it in Nevers proper. There is little commerce or industry beyond agriculture, which is productive.
FNE01 France Nevers Vassy
FNE02 France Nevers Avallon
FNE03 France Nevers Saulieu
FNE04 France Nevers Corbigny
FNE05 France Nevers Clamecy
FNE06 France Nevers Chinon
FNE07 France Nevers Nevers
FNI00 France Nimes -Nimes is a county in southern France, anciently a very prosperous part of the Roman Gallia Narbonensis (for the early history of which, see Province, in Arles). The fall of Rome in the 5th century saw the region overrun first by Visigoths and later by the Franks, not to mention being repeatedly raided by even more barbarous Vandals, Langobards, and Saracens over the ages. Definitively a part of France since Charlemagne's day, the province is under the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Narbonne. It has a diversified economy, with much clothmaking in the towns, and is agriculturally highly productive as well.
FNI01 France Nimes Marvejois
FNI02 France Nimes Florac
FNI03 France Nimes Villefort
FNI04 France Nimes Rive de Rhone
FNI05 France Nimes Le Moulins
FNI06 France Nimes Ales
FNI07 France Nimes Le Vigon
FNI08 France Nimes Beaucaire
FNI09 France Nimes Nimes was originally a Celtic town, refounded by the Romans more than a century before Christ. It has been the center of government for the surrounding region ever since, and is also the see of a bishop. There are many notable buildings from Roman times. The town is the site of much clothmaking, including an unusual cotton fabric becoming widely known as 'de nimes,' and some banking.
FNI10 France Nimes Ganges
FNI11 France Nimes Carmaque, properly 'The Carmaque,' is a poor, swampy place noted, however, for a sturdy breed of horses.
FOR00 France Orleans -Orleans is a duchy in central France, astride the Loire River, centered on the town of the same name, while lies about 70 miles south of Paris. Anciently a Gallic city, Julius Caesar made it part of the Roman world, in which it prospered. Incorporated in the Frankish Kingdom during the fifth century, the area was eventually constituted as a duchy, often under a cadet branch of the Royal family. The duchy is under the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Sens. The is some riverine commerce and a little industry in the duchy, which is fertile and produces some fine wines, as well as grains and livestock.
FOR01 France Orleans Nemours
FOR02 France Orleans Montargis
FOR03 France Orleans Orleans is the capital and principal city of the duchy of the same name, seat of a bishop and a university, the later more than a century old. Much of the economic life of the duchy is centered here.
FOR04 France Orleans Biare
FOR05 France Orleans St Aubin
FOR06 France Orleans Meung
FOR07 France Orleans Sancerre
FOR08 France Orleans Salbris
FOR09 France Orleans Remorant
FPA01 France Paris Paris is the principal city of Europe north of the Alps, and the capital of France. It is at the heart of the county of the same name, sometimes known as the Ile de France. Originally a Celtic foundation, Lutetia of the Parisi, the town and its region were conquered by Julius Caesar in 52 BC. It flourished as a regional administrative and economic center to the end of the Empire, and was for a time the capital of the Frankish Kingdom, although not until Hugh Capet, the last independent Count of Paris, became King of France in 987, did the city definitively become the capital of France. There are many notable churches and shrines in Paris. Although under the religious authority of the Arbishop of Sens, the local bishop has considerable influence. There is a university, founded nearly two centuries ago, among the oldest in the world, and the most famous by far. The city is rich, with banking, clothmaking, armoring, and much else besides, and the contryside is productive as well.
FPC00 France Picardie -Picardie was anciently a part of Gallia Belgica, until added to the Roman world by Juilius Caesar. It flourished during the centuries of Roman rule, and during the 5th century was incorporated into the Frankish Kingdom. Although long a part of France political power in the province is in the hands of a number of local lords, under the overlordship of the King. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Reims. There is a good deal of commerce and banking in the major towns of the province --one of the most urban in all France-- and the countryside is fertile, producing grains and livestock.
FPC01 France Picardie Bapaume
FPC02 France Picardie Arras
FPC03 France Picardie Albret
FPC04 France Picardie Amiens is the capital of Picardie and one of the most important towns in northern France. There is a bishop in residence, and the town is noted for banking, commerce, and clothmaking.
FPC05 France Picardie Bretueil
FPG00 France Perigord -Perigord is a county in southwestern France, hard by Guyenne. Anciently a part of Aquitaine, it shares a common history with Guyenne and Gascony. Created a county within Aquitaine in the 9th century, it passed to English overlordship through the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Henry II in the mid-12th century. Regained for France by Philip II Augustus in the early 13th century, it again passed to English rule by the Treaty of Paris in 1259, along with Limousin and much of Quercy, but was brought back to the bosom of France around the beginning of the present century. The province is under the religious authority of the Archbishop of Bordeaux. Although there is some commerce and industry in the larger towns, the glory of the county is in agriculture, producing fine truffles and fat geese.
FPG01 France Perigord Montron
FPG02 France Perigord Thiviers
FPG03 France Perigord Perigord
FPG04 France Perigord Mussidan
FPG05 France Perigord Sarlat
FPG06 France Perigord Eyziers
FPG07 France Perigord Riberac
FPG08 France Perigord Bergerac
FPN00 France Ponthieu et Artois -Ponthieu et Artois is a small county in northwestern France, just south of the Pas de Calais, bounded on the north by Flanders and the east by Picardie. Anciently a part of Gallica Belgica, the county formed part of what became Flanders after the fall of Rome, not becoming a separate entitity until 1180, when King Philip I married Isabel of Hainaut. In 1329 the county passed to a Burgundian line of counts. The county --actually two counties, Ponthieu and Artois-- forms a part of the archepiscopal province of Reims. There is considerable trade and industry in the towns, notably wollens, and the local region is quiet fertile.
FPN01 France Ponthieu et Artois Bethune
FPN02 France Ponthieu et Artois Montreuil
FPN03 France Ponthieu et Artois Abbeville, a small town, was formerly, and by no means so long ago, in the possession of the King of England, who gave it up in 1328, on demand from his overlord, the King of France.
FPN04 France Ponthieu et Artois Eu,
FPO00 France Poitiers -Poitiers is a large county in the western part of France (properly the county is known as Poitou, pronounced 'pwha-too'). Anciently a part of Celtic Aquitainia, it was added to the Roman world by Juilius Caesar in 56 B.C. and eventually thoroughly Romanized and Christianized. In the early 5th century it was occupied by the Visigoths, but they in turn gave way to the Franks almost a century later. Upon the breakup of the Carolingian Empire, the county came under the control of the Duchy of Aquitaine, and, in 1152, passed to England as a result of the marriage of Elanor of Aquitaine to Henry II. Over the next century the county was gradually regained by France, but there is a latent English claim. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Bordeaux. There is a little commerce and some industry, but the county is primarily agricultural, producing a variety of grains.
FPO01 France Poitiers Ingrandes
FPO02 France Poitiers St Jean
FPO03 France Poitiers La Roche de Poitiers
FPO04 France Poitiers Neuville
FPO05 France Poitiers Parthenay
FPO06 France Poitiers Montmorillon
FPO07 France Poitiers Poitiers is the capital and largest city of the county of that name. There is some industry and there is a bishop in residence.
FPO08 France Poitiers Lusignan, a small, poor fief, is nevertheles the ancestral home, and present residence of His Majesty, King Leon of Armenia and Cyprus, who is presently exiled from his kingdoms due to the advance of the Infidel.
FPO09 France Poitiers St Maixent
FPO10 France Poitiers Bellac
FPO11 France Poitiers Isle Jourdain
FPO12 France Poitiers Maisons-Blances
FPO13 France Poitiers Niort
FQU00 France Quercy -Quercy lies in south central France. Since ancient times a part of Aquitaine, it thus has a common history with Guyenne and Gascony. Created a county in the 9th century, it passed under the influence of the Counts of Toulouse in the 11th and 12th centuries, but came under the direct rule of the Crown of France under Philip II Augustus, only to pass to English dominion by the Treaty of Paris of 1259, not again returning to the French Crown until late in the last century. The county is part of the archepiscopal province of Bourges, exercised through the Bishop of Montauban. There is some industry in the larger towns, most notably Monauban and Cahors. Occupying as it does a portion of the rocky plateau which dominates south central France, Quercy is rather infertile save in the river valleys.
FQU01 France Quercy Argent
FQU02 France Quercy Brive
FQU03 France Quercy St Cere
FQU04 France Quercy Grammat
FQU05 France Quercy Figeac
FQU06 France Quercy Gourdon
FQU07 France Quercy Cahors, the principal town and capital of the County of Quercy, is the see of a bishop, a major center of banking, one of the most important in France, an important trading city, and the site of a university. There are many impressive churches here, and the town is well fortified.
FQU08 France Quercy Montaubon, a modest town, is the resident of a bishop.
FQU09 France Quercy Moissac
FRO00 France Rouergue -Rouergue lies amid the large plateau which dominates south central France. In ancient times it was partially in Lugdunensis and partially in Narbonensis, it was overrun by various barbarians before finally passing to the Frankish Kingdom in the 6th century. Created a county in the 9th century, it was for a time under the influence of the Counts of Toulouse, until coming under the control of Philip II Augustus, in the early 13th century. Direct religious authority is vested in the Bishop of Rodez, who is under the oversight of the Archbishop of Bourges. There is little commerce in the county, which is mostly suitable for sheep raising (producing wonderful cheeses).
FRO01 France Rouergue Aiques
FRO02 France Rouergue Estaing
FRO03 France Rouergue Espalion
FRO04 France Rouergue Marvajols
FRO05 France Rouergue Rodez is the capital of Rouergue, and the see of a bishop. There is some commerce here, but the town is primarily agricultural.
FRO06 France Rouergue Sauveterre
FRO07 France Rouergue Villefranche
FRO08 France Rouergue St Affrique
FRO09 France Rouergue Alban
FSA00 France Saintonge -Saintonge is a large county on the Bay of Biscay. Anciently a part of Aquitaine, its history is one with that of Gascony and Guyenne, passing under English rule in 1154, under which it remains. The county is part of the archepiscopal province of Bordeaux. There is fair amount of commerce here, notably shipping, and some manufacturing. The province is fertile, producing grains and a wines.
FSA01 France Saintonge La Rochelle, the residence of a bishop, is a busy port, shipping wines to England and other lands.
FSA02 France Saintonge St Jean
FSA03 France Saintonge Pons
FSA04 France Saintonge Saintes is the comital seat of Saintonge. There is a bishop here. The town is a center of the wine trade, and they produce a fortified wine called 'cognac.'
FSA05 France Saintonge Rochefort
FSA06 France Saintonge Jonzac
FTH00 France Thouars -Thouars lies on the coast of the Bay of Biscay, between Britanny and Saintonge. In ancient times a part of Aquitaine, it shares a history of English rule with Guyenne and Gascony. It was regained for France by Philip II Augustus in the early 13th century, however. Thouars is subject to the Archbishop of Bordeaux. It has little commerce, but is fertile and produces a variety of useful crops.
FTH01 France Thouras Thours
FTH02 France Thouras Thorigny
FTH03 France Thouras Cholet
FTH04 France Thouras Retz
FTH05 France Thouras Chantonnay
FTH06 France Thouras La Roche de Thouars
FTH07 France Thouras St Gilles
FTH08 France Thouras Fontenay
FTH09 France Thouras Lucon, a small city, is the seat of a bishop.
FTL00 France Toulouse -Toulouse is an extensive county in the south of France. Originally a part of Gallic and later Roman Aquitaine, the region shares a history with Gascony and Guyenne, passing from Roman rule to Visigothic, and later Frankish, but was not incorporated into the Duchy of Aquitaine, a separate line of counts being established in Carolingian times. Under its counts, Toulouse rose to great influence in southern France, its authority for a time extending over Narbonne and the Languedoc (of which the county linguistically forms a part), and even into the Spains. However, the rise of the Albigensian heresy in the last century brought the counts to heel, and they for a time lost power to Simon de Montfort in 1215, only to reassert their authority by force of arms in 1218. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Toulouse, where there has been a university for more than a century now. There is considerable commerce and industry in the principal cities, Toulouse and Albi, but the county is otherwise primarily agricultural.
FTL01 France Toulouse Albi is an important market town, and once a center of the 'Albigensian' heresey.
FTL02 France Toulouse Toulouse is the greatest city in the south of France, with banking, manufacturing, and trading. The town is the site of a university founded in 1233, and of an archbishopric created in 1317. One of the leading cities of the Languedoc, and a center of poetry and art.
FTL03 France Toulouse Castres
FTL04 France Toulouse Revel
FTL05 France Toulouse Muret
FTL06 France Toulouse Castelnaudary
FTL07 France Toulouse Carbonne
FTS00 France Tours -Tours, sometimes known as the Touraine, is a large county in west central France, about 125 miles southwest of Paris. Anciently part of Gallia Lugdunensis, it was one of the last areas in which Roman authority held out, until nearly the end of the 5th century, when it was overrun by the Franks under Clovis, and incorporated into their kingdom. In 732 the Saracenic onslaught out of Spain was halted near the town of Tours. The line of counts was establised in Carolingian times, but the title escheated to the Crown centuries ago. Ecclesiastical authority is vested in the Archbishop of Tours. Although there is some manufacturing and commerce in Tours proper, the province is primarily agricultural.
FTS01 France Tours Troo
FTS02 France Tours Chateau-Renault
FTS03 France Tours Langeais
FTS04 France Tours Longue
FTS05 France Tours Amboise
FTS06 France Tours Tours, the Roman Caesarodunum, is the principal town of the Touraine, and the see of an archbishop since Roman times, two of whom have become notable saints, St. Martin of Tours (d.397) and St. Gregory of Tours (d. 594). There are several notable churches, and the town is a center of banking and trade.
FTS07 France Tours Loches
FVA00 France Valois -Valois is a county in central France, just north of Paris. Anciently a part of Gallia Begica, on the fall of Rome the area passed to the Franks. Over the centuries several families have been invested with the county, but all became extinct. The last line of counts was created only in the late 13th century, and in 1328 the reigning count ascended the throne of France, thereby once again extinguishing as independent line of counts in Valois.
FVA01 France Valois Coucy is a small, but prosperous fief a few days' ride north of Paris. In one of the most fertile regions of all France, Coucy also benefits from a good deal of trade. The present line of seigneurs has been in power for more than a century, and wield great influence from their castle, which has the greatest keep in France.
FVA02 France Valois Chantilly
FVA03 France Valois Villers-Cotterat
FVA04 France Valois Dammartin
FVE00 France Vermandois -Vermandois lies in the north of France, four or five days ride from Paris. In ancient times it was the home of the Vermandui, who were brought into the Roman world by Julius Caesar. Conquered by the Franks in the 5th century, it was constituted a county in the 9th, to help meet the threat of the Norsemen. It is under the religious authority of the Archbishop of Reims. The county has much commerce and industry, including clothmaking, and it is quite fertile as well.
FVE01 France Vermandois St Quentin
FVE02 France Vermandois Peronne
FVE03 France Vermandois La Fere
FVE04 France Vermandois Laon is the residence of a bishop.
FVE05 France Vermandois Craonne
FVE06 France Vermandois Roucy
FVE07 France Vermandois Soissons, for a time capital of the Franks, is an episcopal see, and the center of much commerce.
FVN00 France Vendome -Vendome is in west central France, about a hudnred English miles southwest of Paris. Anciently a part of Gallia Lugdunensis, it did not come under Frankish rule until the late 5th century. Created a county in the 9th century, it passed to the Angevin Plantagenet family in the 11th, and thus, when Henry II became king in England, to English dominion, to be regained for France early in the 13th century by Philip Augustus. Vendome is part of the archepiscopal province of Tours. The fief is overwhelmingly agricultural in character.
FVN01 France Vendome Vendome
FVN02 France Vendome Fontaine
FVN03 France Vendome Montoire
FVN04 France Vendome St Calais
FVN05 France Vendome Espulsay
FVV00 France Vivarais -The Vivarais lies in southeastern France, up against the Rhone River. Incorporated into the Roman world more than a century before Christ, it was overrun by the Burgundians in the 4th century, became part of the Frankish Kingdom in the 6th, but upon the division of Charlemagne's Empire became part of Lothringia, and then for a time the Arelate. It was finally united with France only in the early 13th century. Religious authority is rather confused in the county, as different portions fall under the Archbishops of Narbonne, Vienne, and Bourges. The province is primarily agricultural.
FVV01 France Vivarais St Chamond
FVV02 France Vivarais Tournon
FVV03 France Vivarais Le Puy, there is a bishop here, subject to the Archbishop of Bourges.
FVV04 France Vivarais Langeac
FVV05 France Vivarais Privas
FVV06 France Vivarais Joyeuse
FVV07 France Vivarais Langogno
FVV08 France Vivarais Viviers, a small city, is the comital seat for the Vivarais.
FVV09 France Vivarais Villefort
FVV10 France Vivarais Mende there is a bishop here, under the Archbishop of Bourges.
G0000 Naples Naples -Naples was founded by Greek colonists in the dim past. It came early under Roman rule, and prospered for centuries. Even the fall of Rome only somewhat dimmed the city's greatness, for it passed to Byzantine control in the sixth century, despite the fact that much of the rest of southern Italy was overrun by the Langobards. The advent of the Normans in the 11th century led to the gradual consolidation of all of southern Italy into the Kingdom of Naples, which eventually passed to the Hohenstauffen family, and achieved great levels of culture, prosperity, and civilization under the Emperor Frederick II. Unfortunately, that worthy had spent too many years disputing the temporal authority of the popes, and upon his death, the current pope authorized the French Angevin prince Charles I, brother of St. Louis, to assume the property, which he did in 1266, not without bloodshed. King Charles lost control of Sicily to Aragon in 1282, as a result of the extremely byzantine machinations of the Byzantine Emperor, who wished to curb Angevin ambitions in Greece. Nevertheless, the current dynasty of Naples decends from him. Ecclesiastical authority is quite diffused, as there are fully 20 archbishops in the Regno (Naples, Capua, Benevento, Brindisi, Bari, etc), not to mention a few places directly under papal authority (this is a consequence of the early conversion of many areas of southern Italy to Christianity). There are universities at Salerno, arguably the oldest in Europe, and Naples. There is a good deal of maritime commerce, as well as some banking and manufacturing in the larger cities (especially Naples), and agriculture is very productive, with the grape and olive prominent, as well as wool production.
H0000 HRE:Germany Germany -Germany is at the heart of the Holy Roman Empire. Anciently inhabited by the barbarous Germans, following the fall of Rome, the area was gradually Christianized, as the Frankish Kingdom expanded ever eastwards. In the 8th century Charlemagne extended his power from the Pyrennes to the Elbe, and was designated "Roman Emperor" by the Pope in the Year of Grace 800. The division of his empire among his heirs led to the confinment of the title to the eastern, German, portions. Even here, in the core of the Empire the authority of the Emperor is thin, and often nonexistent, as the many kingdoms, duchies, counties, baronies, free cities, and what have you have over the centuries extracted numerous rights from often weak emperors. Nevertheless, a strong Emperor can often prove a highly effective ruler.
HBB00 HRE:Germany Brabant -Brabant was anciently inhabited by the Germanic Batavi (in the north, on the Rhine) and the Gallic Belgae (in the south). Incorporated into the Roman world by Julius Caesar and his successors (the north rather loosely), it more or less flourished for several centuries as the province of Germania Inferior. Incorporated into the Frankish Kingdom in the 5th century, the area was partially settled by Saxons and Frisians moving in from the northeast. The breakup of the Carolingian Empire saw it included in Lothringia, or the middle kingdom, and by the Crusades it was firmly part of the Holy Roman Empire. It was created a duchy in the 12th century, and, although the duke is nominally subject to the Emperor, the latter's influence is more apparent than real. Ecclesiastical authority is divided between the Archbishop of Reims and that of Cologne. The province is prosperous, banking, trade, clothmaking, and other industries flourishing in the cities, while agricultural production is excellent.
HBB01 HRE:Germany Brabant Eindhoven
HBB02 HRE:Germany Brabant Breda
HBB03 HRE:Germany Brabant Bergen-op-Zoom
HBB04 HRE:Germany Brabant Antwerp
HBB05 HRE:Germany Brabant Maastricht
HBB06 HRE:Germany Brabant Koersel
HBB07 HRE:Germany Brabant Westerloo
HBB08 HRE:Germany Brabant Mechlen
HBB09 HRE:Germany Brabant Hasselt
HBB10 HRE:Germany Brabant Louvain
HBB11 HRE:Germany Brabant Brussels
HHN00 HRE:Germany Hainaunt -Hainaunt or Hainault or Hainaut, is a duchy in northwestern Germany, along the frontier of French Flanders. It was anciently a part of the Roman province of Germania Inferior. Overrun by the Franks in the 5th century, on the division of Charlemagne's Empire it passed first to Lothringia and then to the Eastern Frankish Kingdom, which became the Holy Roman Empire. By the 10th century it was acounty within the Duchy of Lothringia, later passing to Lower Lothringia. In 1191 the counts acquired Flanders through marriage. In 1204 Count Baldwin VI became the 'Latin Emperor' of Constantinople. Late in the same century the county was divided among Baldwin's great-grandsons, Flanders going to Guy of Dampierre and Hainault to John of Avesnes. Hainaunt is subject to the religious authority of the Archbishop of Reims. It a rich province, with much commerce and industry, including clothmaking, while highly productive agriculturally.
HHN01 HRE:Germany Hainaunt Oudenarde
HHN02 HRE:Germany Hainaunt Charleroi
HHN03 HRE:Germany Hainaunt Mons
HHN04 HRE:Germany Hainaunt Tournai is the see of a bishop.
HHN05 HRE:Germany Hainaunt Valenciennes
HHN06 HRE:Germany Hainaunt Maubuege
HHN07 HRE:Germany Hainaunt Beaumont
HHN08 HRE:Germany Hainaunt Cambrai is ruled by its Prince-Bishop, under the loose oversight of the Archbishop of Reims.
HHN09 HRE:Germany Hainaunt Marienbourn
HHO00 HRE:Germany Holland -Holland is a county in northwestern Germany, between the Zuider Zee and the North Sea. Anciently the home of the Batavii, it was never a part of the Roman Empire. Overrun during the Barbarian invasions by the Frisii, who set up their own kingdom, in the 8th century it became part of Charlemagne's Empire, upon the breakup of which it was included in Lothringia for a time before passing permanently to the Eastern Frankish Kingdom, Germany, as a county. Holland is part of the archepiscopal province of Cologne. The land is fertile, and there is some commerce and manufacturing in the larger towns.
HHO01 HRE:Germany Holland Den Helden
HHO02 HRE:Germany Holland Edam
HHO03 HRE:Germany Holland Amsterdam
HHO04 HRE:Germany Holland Haarlem
HHO05 HRE:Germany Holland Utrecht is the see of a Prince-Bishop, who is legally autonomous of the county, and wields ecclesiastical authority not only over Holland, but Zeeland as well.
HHO06 HRE:Germany Holland s'Gravenhagen is the capital of the County of Holland, albeit by no means the largest town.
HHO07 HRE:Germany Holland Rotterdam
HHO08 HRE:Germany Holland Putten
HJU00 HRE:Germany Juliers -Juliers or Julich lies in the Rhenish highlands, to the east of Liege. Anciently a part of Germania Inferior, it was overrun by the Franks in the 5th century, becoming for a time the heart of Charlemagne's Empire, before ultimately a part of the East Frankish Duchy of Lothringia in the 10th century. It is part of the archepsicopal province of Cologne. There is some commerce here, and a little industry, but the province is mostly agricultural.
HJU01 HRE:Germany Juliers Duren
HJU02 HRE:Germany Juliers Aachen, the principal town of Julich, was the capital of Charlemagne's Empire, and has many notable monuments of his time.
HJU03 HRE:Germany Juliers Heimbuch
HJU04 HRE:Germany Juliers Monschau
HJU05 HRE:Germany Juliers Munstereifel
HJU06 HRE:Germany Juliers Zitterwald
HJU07 HRE:Germany Juliers Gelostein
HJU08 HRE:Germany Juliers Prum
HLG00 HRE:Germany Liege -Liege is an episcopal principality in the lower Rhine valley, north of Luxembourg. Anciently a part of Roman Lower Germany, after the barbarian invasions it became part of the Kingdom of Franks, and after the division of Charlemagne's Empire, a part of the Duchy of Lower Lothringia. A line of elective Prince Bishops has ruled here since the 10th century, subject to the authority of the Archbishop of Cologne. The province has a great deal of industry, and is highly productive agriculturally.
HLG01 HRE:Germany Liege Limbourg
HLG02 HRE:Germany Liege Spa
HLG03 HRE:Germany Liege Liege, the seat of the Prince Bishop, is an imprtant center of commerce and manufacturing, notably of armor.
HLG04 HRE:Germany Liege Hannuit
HLG05 HRE:Germany Liege Huy
HLG06 HRE:Germany Liege Namur
HLR00 HRE:Germany Lorraine -Lorraine is a large duchy on the western fringe of the Holy Roman Empire. In ancient times the region formed part of several Roman provinces in the Gauls and Germanys. Beginning in the 4th century it was repeatedly overrun by various barbarians, until the Franks finally asserted control in the 5th century. Upon the breakup of Charlemagne's Empire in the 9th century, it constituted the core of Lothringia, the Kingdom of Lothar, from which it derives its name. Passing to the Holy Roman Empire, it was constituted as a duchy in the 10th century. Originally including what are now the duchies and counties of Brabant, Hainault, Luxembourg, Liege, Juliers, and much else beside, the present dimensions of the province were established only in the mid-13th century. Lorraine falls within the ecclesiastical balliwick of the Archbishop of Trier. The county is prosperous. Many of the towns are important centers of trade and manufacturing, and there are a number of important fairs held each year. The land is fertile, and many grains and cattle are produced.
HLR01 HRE:Germany Lorraine Saarbourg
HLR02 HRE:Germany Lorraine Bitsch
HLR03 HRE:Germany Lorraine Saarbrucken
HLR04 HRE:Germany Lorraine Metz
HLR05 HRE:Germany Lorraine Mars-la-Tour
HLR06 HRE:Germany Lorraine Verdun
HLR07 HRE:Germany Lorraine Saarwerden
HLR08 HRE:Germany Lorraine Luneville
HLR09 HRE:Germany Lorraine Nancy
HLR10 HRE:Germany Lorraine Bar
HLR11 HRE:Germany Lorraine Salm
HLR12 HRE:Germany Lorraine Baccarat
HLR13 HRE:Germany Lorraine Toul
HLR14 HRE:Germany Lorraine Ste-Marie
HLR15 HRE:Germany Lorraine Ste-Die
HLR16 HRE:Germany Lorraine Mirecourt
HLR17 HRE:Germany Lorraine Rambervilliers
HLR18 HRE:Germany Lorraine Remiremount
HLR19 HRE:Germany Lorraine Epinal
HLR20 HRE:Germany Lorraine Gerardmer
HLX00 HRE:Germany Luxembourg -Luxembourg, a duchy just to the north of Lorraine, shares most of its early history with the latter region. Long a part of Lower Lorraine, it became a separate duchy in the 11th century. The present duke is His Grace, King John of Bohemia, who has been on the throne since the death of his father, the Emperor Henry VII. The duchy is under the religious authority of the Bishop of Liege, who is turn under the Archbishop of Cologne. The province has some commerce and industry in Luxembourg proper, but is otherwise agricultural in character.
HLX01 HRE:Germany Luxembourg Houffalize
HLX02 HRE:Germany Luxembourg Marche
HLX03 HRE:Germany Luxembourg Dinant
HLX04 HRE:Germany Luxembourg Florennes
HLX05 HRE:Germany Luxembourg Bastogne
HLX06 HRE:Germany Luxembourg Givet
HLX07 HRE:Germany Luxembourg Luxembourg, anciently a Roman city, is the principal town of the duchy of that name, is a center of trade and one of the most well fortified places in Christendom.
HLX08 HRE:Germany Luxembourg Bouillon
HZE00 HRE:Germany Zealand -Zealand is a duchy comprising the low lying islands and coastlands at the mouths of the Rhine and Maas Rivers. Its early history is closely linked with that of Holland, but some centuries ago it was constituted as a separate duchy. The place is poor, with fishing and shipping the mainstays of the economy.
HZE01 HRE:Germany Zeeland Schouwen
HZE02 HRE:Germany Zeeland Bevelland
HZE03 HRE:Germany Zeeland Walcheren
I0000 HRE:Italy Italy -Italy is a Kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire, constituting the northern half of the great peninsula of that name. Anciently the home of the Etruscans and Celts, the area was incorporated into the Roman world in the centuries before Christ, becoming one of the richest parts of the empire. After the fall of Rome it was overrun by numerous bands of barbarians, most of whom formed kingdoms of greater or lesser duration. In the late 8th century, Charlemagne extended his power over the area, creating the present kingdom, which has been a part of the Holy Roman Empire ever since, albeit that the authority of the Emperors has worn quite thin, particularly after their great struggle with the Popes over the last two centuries.
IAS00 HRE:Italy Asti -Asti lies in northwestern Italy, between Lombardia and Piedmont. Anciently the area was part of Gallia Cisalpina. Overrun by numerous waves of barbarians over the centuries, it eventually emerged as part of the Germanic Kingdom of Italy, attaining autonomy from the Empire as a result of the Guelf-Ghibelline conflict in the 11th and 12th centuries. It is subject to the religious authority of the Archbishop of Milan. The province has a great deal of commerce and produces excellent wines.
IAS01 HRE:Italy Asti Castellazzo
IAS02 HRE:Italy Asti Asti
IAS03 HRE:Italy Asti Nizza
IAS04 HRE:Italy Asti Alba
IFL00 HRE:Italy Florence -Florence, or more properly Tuscany, is a large republic on the western coast of central Italy, between the States of the Church, Lombardy, and Genoa. Anciently the home of the Etruscans, it passed into the Roman orbit many centuries before Christ. Overrun by succesive waves of barbarians after the fall of Rome, in the 8th century it was incorporated into Charlemagne's Empire as part of the Kingdom of Italy, forming the "Tuscan March," which later became a county, the most famous ruler of which was the great Matilda, one of the most formidable female military commanders of the 11th (or any other) century. The county has been extinct now for more than a century, and Tuscany consists of more than a dozen imperial cities, which sometimes act in unison, but are more often at odds with each other. Many of the towns are themselves rent by internal disorders. Northern Tuscany in under the religious authority of the Archbishop of Pisa, while the rest of the province comes directly under the authority of His Holiness the Pope. There are universities at Siena and Arezzo, and new one is to open in Pisa within the year. Despite the discord and disorder which plagues Tuscany, it is among the richest provinces in Christendom. Banking, shipping, and manufacturing (particularly of woolens, armor, and luxury goods) flourish, while the province produces fine wines and excellent olive oil.
IGA00 HRE:Italy Genoa -Genoa is a republic on the Riviera, between the Ligurian Alps and the sea. As early as the 5th century B.C. the city which lies at the heart of the republic was a place of commercial importance and a center of the Ligurians. Passing under Roman rule over two centuries before Christ, it continued to prosper with only occasional interruptions. The fall of Rome in the 5th century brought it many difficulties, but it weathered numerous Barbarian assaults (whether German, Lombard, or Arab), and eventually emerged as free city within the Holy Roman Empire, a status more technical than real. The city prospered as a result of the Crusades, and by the 13th century had begun to expand overseas, securing dominion over Sardinia and Corsica and many important islands and ports in the Aegean, taken from the dying Byzantine Empire. In 1284 Genoa thoroughly defeated its principal maritime rival in the west, Pisa, and since then has fought a series of wars with Venice over control of Levantine trade. Although it has of late been subject to some internal disorder, due to rivalries among the princely families and tensions between the orders, the city is rich and powerful. It has its own archbishop and a university. In addition to shipping and banking, there is some luxury trade, and the city is the center of a moderately fertile agricultural region.
ILA00 HRE:Italy Lombardia -Lombardy is a large region in the northern part of Italy. Anciently part of Gallia Cisaplina, it was Romanized before the Christian era, and became one of the most prosperous areas of the Empire. Upon the fall of the empire Lombardy fell succesively under the control of the Ostrogoths and the Langobards --hence the name "Lombardy"-- before being incorporated into the Carolingian Empire by Charlemagne himself. Passing later to the control of the Holy Roman Empire, the many small feudatories and communes of Lombardy proved mostly loyal to the papacy in the long struggle between emperors and popes which culminated in the triumph of the latter in the late 12th century. The principal city of Lombardy, Milano, passed under the control of the Visconti family in 1277, and they have proved excellent rulers, albeit harsh, and have extended their rule over much of the region. Ecclesiastical authority is invested in the Archbishop of Milano, who has usually been a Visconti. There are universities at Piacenza and Vercelli, numerous banking and commercial establishments, a very extensive woolens industry, and much other manufacturing besides. In addition, Lombardy is favored with the richest fields in Europe, and produces an abundance of agricultural produce, all of which makes it among the richest lands in the world.
IMN00 HRE:Italy Montferrato -Montferrato's early history is much like that of Lombardia or Asti from Roman times virtually unto the present. Elevated to the the status of marquisate in the 10th century, the marquisal house has managed quite well over the ages. The present marquis, Teodoro, is the direct decendant, through his mother, of the original holders of the the property. Montferrato is under the religious authority of the Archbishop of Milan. There is a little commerce, but otherwise the province is overwhelmingly agricultural.
IMN01 HRE:Italy Montferrato Biella
IMN02 HRE:Italy Montferrato San Germano
IMN03 HRE:Italy Montferrato Ivrea
IMN04 HRE:Italy Montferrato Canavese
IMN05 HRE:Italy Montferrato Santhia
IPM00 HRE:Italy Piedmont -Piedmont is an important principality on the eastern slopes of the Alps, hence its name, 'pie de monte--foot of the mountains.' Anciently a part of Gallia Cisalpina, it passed to Roman rule during the last century of the Republic. Piedmont emerged from the Dark Ages as a melange of petty principalities and autonomous communes all loosely under the authority of the Holy Roman Empire. In the 13th century a branch of the House of Savoy acquired the property, and proceeded to begin a program of centralization. Piedmont is under the ecclesiastical authority of the Archbishop of Milan, save for some areas under that of the Archbishop of Tarantaise. There is extensive agricultural production, including some excellent wines.
IPM01 HRE:Italy Piedmont Torino, capital of the Piedmont, is an important administrative center, with some manufacturing and commercial development. There is a bishop, subject to the Archbishop of Tarantaise.
IPM02 HRE:Italy Piedmont Avigliana
IPM03 HRE:Italy Piedmont Susa
IPM04 HRE:Italy Piedmont Carmagnola
IPM05 HRE:Italy Piedmont Pinerolo
ISV00 HRE:Italy Savoy -Savoy is a vaguely defined territory sprawled from the Isere River over the Alps into northern Italy and up around Lake Geneva, so that there are French, Italian, and German speaking areas. It controls the principal alpine passes into Italy from the northwest, thus bringing a measure of economic prosperity to the ruling House of Savoy (who are clever businessmen). Anciently a part of the Roman Empire, during the Barbarian invasions different parts came under the rule of different tribes, the tranalpine regions falling to the Bugundians and the Cisalpine to the Ostrogoths and later the Lombards. During the Dark Ages the area was often fought over, but in 1033 it became a feudatory of the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II, who gave it in fief to Humbert the Whitehanded, founder of the present dynasty. Reflecting the disparate nature of the marquisate, ecclesiastical authority is shared among the Archbishops of Vienne and Embrun, in the Arelate, and Tarantaise in Savoy. There is a good deal of commercial enterprise, and some industry to support it, in addition to wool raising and various agricultural pursuits.
ISV01 HRE:Italy Savoy Morat
ISV02 HRE:Italy Savoy Vaud
ISV03 HRE:Italy Savoy Valais
ISV04 HRE:Italy Savoy Chablais
ISV05 HRE:Italy Savoy Geneva
ISV06 HRE:Italy Savoy Aosta
ISV07 HRE:Italy Savoy Tarentaise
ISV08 HRE:Italy Savoy Annecy
ISV09 HRE:Italy Savoy Lanlebourg
ISV10 HRE:Italy Savoy Chambery
ISZ00 HRE:Italy Saluzzo -Saluzzo hugs the Italian side of the Alps. Anciently one of several small Roman provinces clinging to the Alpine passes, it's history from the fall of Rome to recent times is as one with that of the other states of the Kingdom of Italy. The marquisate was created in the 10th century to secure the Alpine passes. Saluzzo is subject to the religious authority of the Archbishop of Tarantaise. The Alpine passes make it an important center of commerce, and some of the larger towns are quite prosperous. The lower lying areas are fertile, but some higher regions are very impoverished.
ISZ01 HRE:Italy Saluzzo Saluzzo
ISZ02 HRE:Italy Saluzzo Fossano
ISZ03 HRE:Italy Saluzzo Busca
ISZ04 HRE:Italy Saluzzo San Damiano
ISZ05 HRE:Italy Saluzzo Prazzo
ISZ06 HRE:Italy Saluzzo Cuneo
IVE00 HRE: Italy Venice -Venice was founded by people from Aquileia and other mainland cities who fled the barbarians after the fall of Rome, and found refuge on the many islands if the extensive lagoon at the headwaters of the Adriatic. In 697 a republic was formally established, and the first Doge was chosen. The city has grown and prospered ever since. Although with little direct authority, the Doge (which is an elective position controlled by an oligarchy of the merchant princes) can be extremely influential, and is treated with considerable respect by foreign sovereigns, if not always by the Venetians, who have been known to execute one from time to time just to show them who's boss. The Most Serene Republic controls extensive overseas territories in the east, and is immensely wealthy. Over the last century it has begun to extend its rule over some nearby mainland areas in order to insure its defense. The Republic has a professional navy and a small standing army. Venice is subject only to the ecclesiastical authority of its own Patriarch (technically the Patriarch of Aquileia). There is a university at Treviso, on the mainland. The Serenissima is the most industrialized state in the world, with extensive shippbuilding facilities, elaborate factories, and great banking houses not only in the great city itself, but also scattered throughout the Empire.
IVR00 HRE:Italy Verona -Verona is an important city and region between Lombardy and Venice, in the northeastern part of Italy. Its early history is closely associated with that of Lombardy, and, in deed, Verona and many of the surrounding cities formed part of the great Lombard League, formed in the 11th century to throw off the authority of the Holy Roman Emperors. Under the authority of the de la Scala family since 1260 the town has prospered, and extended its authority over many surrounding areas. Under the ecclesiastical authority of the Patriarch of Venice, there are universities at Vicenza and Padua (where there is also the shrine of St. Anthony, an important pilgrimage center). The city is the center of a small banking industry, there is a good deal of riverine and road-borne commerce, and some industry. In addtion, the area is quite fertile, and many excellent wines are produced, as well as wheat and other agricultural products.
L0000 Leon-Castille Leon-Castille -Leon y Castilla are two large kingdoms which together comprise the northwestern and central regions of Spain. As with all of Spain, they had their beginnings in the small Christian states along the Pyrenees which survived the Islamic conquest in the 8th century. The original state, deriving from the ancient Principality of the Asturias, was divided among various heirs at different times, so that by the 11th century there were several distinct kingdoms, all of which were brought together as a result of a complicated series of marriages and inheritances in the early 13th century, not without a little bloodshed. There is an assembly of nobles and burgers, called the Cortes, and royal power is somewhat limited by them. There are two archibishoprics, at Santiago de Compostela, the premier place of pilgrimage in western Europe, and Toledo, with some areas in the north directly under the Pope. There are universities at Salamanca and Palencia. The kingdom is mountainous or plateau, but thinly populated, albeit with a warlike people, hardened through centuries of fighting the Moors, who still occasionally make trouble along the frontier of distant Granada. There is much wool produced, but little other industry save along the coasts. The chief agricultural products are grains, with some wines and olives.
M0000 Mallorca Mallorca -Mallorca is a small kingdom based in the Balearic Islands, in the Mediterranean east of Spain and south of France. Anciently the islands were occupied by the Romans after the Punic Wars, and nothing important happened thereafter for centuries. During the Islamic conquest and the "Reconquista" they passed back and forth several times, until, in 1229, the islands fell definitively under Catalan influence. With the addition of the County of Rosellon, in the north of Spain, the islands were created as a separate kingdom only in 1276, under a cadet branch of the Catalan royal house. The king of Mallorca also holds in personal fief the city of Montpellier, in southern France.
MML00 Mallorca Mallorca -Mallorca is the principal 'province' of the kingdom of the same name, comprising the Balearic Islands. Thinly populated, the place is nevertheless rather prosperous, due to its important maritime interests. There is also some agriculture, including wine and olive production. Ecclesiastically, for a century now the bishop of Palma is directly subject to the Pope, rather than to the Archbishop of Tarragona.
MML01 Mallorca Mallorca Menorca, the northernmost of the Balearic Islands, possesses a fine harbor, and some maritime commerce. It is otherwise undistinguished.
MML02 Mallorca Mallorca Inca, comprising the eastern portions of the island of Mallorca, is poor and thinly populated.
MML03 Mallorca Mallorca Palma is the captial and principal city of the Kingdom of Mallorca, with about 35,000 inhabitants, including its environs, on the western end of the island of Mallorca proper. The town is the see of an independent bishopric, with a magnificent cathedral. There is an excellent port, with extensive shipbuilding and fitting out facilities and a good deal of commerce, and extensive agricultural pursuits.
MML04 Mallorca Mallorca Ibiza is the southernmost island of the Balearics, with some fishing and agricultural production, but essentially a poor, backward place.
MRS00 Mallorca Rosellon -Rosellon is a county at the northern end of the Catalan-speaking area which comprises most of northeastern Spain. Part of the Kingdom of Mallorca, it is eclessiastically dependent upon the Archibishop of Narbonne. The coastal areas are rather prosperous, the interior rather impoverished.
MRS01 Mallorca Rosellon Perpignan, the principal city and capital of the County of Rosellon, is an important port and administrative center, as well as the seat of a bishop. In addition to shipping, there is some textile manufacturing, and, of course, an adequate agricultural base.
MRS02 Mallorca Rosellon Axat [pronouced "Ah-sh-at"] is a poor fief in the foothills of the Pyrenees.
N0000 Navarre Navarre -Navarre, which straddles the western end of the Pyrenees, was one of several small kingdoms established in the high mountain valleys of northern Spain after the collapse of the Visigothic kingdom following the Islamic invasion of 711. The little kingdom has waxed and waned since, surviving partially by the valor and military abilities of its leaders (especially Sancho III the Great, king 1000-1035, who controlled virtually all of the Christian regions of Spain), and the inability of the competing kingdoms to come to an agreement as to how to partition the little state. In the mid-13th century Navarre came under the rule of the French counts of Champagne, and in 1285 the throne passed to the king of France. On the death of Charles IV in 1328, Navarre was given to his daughter Jeanne (Juana II) in compensation for her disbarment from the throne of France by the Salic Law. Ecclesiastically, Navarre is subject to the authority of the Archbishop of Saragossa, in Aragon. The kingdom is poor and thinly populated. It is peopled mostly by Basques, with some Spaniards in the southern areas and some Frenchmen in the north. It is, however, more or less self-sustaining in grains.
NNV01 Navarre Navarre Zuberoa
NNV02 Navarre Navarre Athoratze
NNV03 Navarre Navarre Domibane-garazil
NNV04 Navarre Navarre Irun is the principal, indeed, only port, of Navarre, a center of commerce and shipping, and the second largest town in the kingdom
NNV05 Navarre Navarre Elizondo
NNV06 Navarre Navarre Bidassoa
NNV07 Navarre Navarre Pampeluna, largest city in Navarre, is the captial, and seat of a bishop. There are about 40,000 inhabitants in its environs, and some industry, but the place has little else to recommend it.
NNV08 Navarre Navarre Estella
NNV09 Navarre Navarre Tudela
NNV10 Navarre Navarre Lerin
P0000 Papacy Papacy -The Pope is the leader of the Church, the final authority in matters of faith and morals. In addition to His Holiness' spiritual authority, he is vested with temporal authority in several areas.
PAV00 Papacy Avignon Avignon is a county almost wholly surrounded by Provence, from which it was created. The county is under the temporal rule of the Pope, who has resided here since 1309, although formal title is still vested in the Counts of Provence. The county is prosperous, due in no small part to the presence of the Papal Court, and to a fertile soil.
PAV01 Papacy Avignon Sault
PAV02 Papacy Avignon Orange
PAV03 Papacy Avignon Apt
PAV04 Papacy Avignon Avignon became the seat of the Papacy in 1309. The town is a river port of some importance, well fortified, and has greatly benefitted from the presence of the Pope and his court. There is also a university, created only a generation ago.
PPS00 Papacy Papal States -The Papal States or, more correctly, the States of the Church, occupy the central part of Italy, in a broad belt from the east to the west coast, centered on Rome. Anciently, of course, this was the heart of the Roman Empire. The Church contends that these lands were granted to the papacy by Constantine the Great, although some voices have been raised in objection. During the Ostrogothic period the lands were certainly not ruled by the popes, nor during the protracted Byzantine interlude following the conquests of Belisarius in the early sixth century. But the imposition of Frankish rule in the late seventh century led to Pepin the Short conceeding papal prinacy to Pope Stephen II in 756. Despite the efforts of several popes to impose central authority over their lands, the region is a cosmos of petty feudatories and communes, most paying no more tha lip service to papal suzereingity. Rome itself has proven so unruly (several popes have been murdered or driven from the See of Peter by the Roman mob) that the popes have found it safer to live in Avignon since 1307. There are universities at Bologna, Arezzo, Perugia, and Rome itself. The numerous pilgrims who visit Rome and nearby sacred sites consitute an important source of income. In addition, the land is reasonably fertile, producing grains, grapes, and olives in some abundance.
R0000 Ireland Ireland -Ireland is a large island to the west of Britain. Known as Hibernia in Roman times, and quite barbarous, it was converted to to Christianity in the 5th century, and experienced a great flowering in the 6th and 7th centuries. The onset of the Northmen in the 8th century came near to extirpating civilization in the island, which was unable to resist their onslaught due to the numerous petty kingdoms into which the land was divided, more than a 150 at one time, not to mention the four or five larger kingdoms which sometimes imposed a more than theoretical authority, or the occasional "High King" who would emerge from the chaos. The Norsemen eventually caused the Irish to become better organized, and eventually a real king was found, Brian Boru (1102-1114), who united the Irish sufficiently for them to break the power of the inavders at Clontarf. Unfortunately, King Brian died in the battle and the Irish went back to their petty feuding. As a result, later in the century the Kings of England began intervening in Ireland. During his brief tenure on the Throne of St. Peter, the only English-born Pope, Adrian IV (1154-1159), granted Ireland to Henry II of England, who began the systematic subjugation of the island in 1171. Although English authority has several times been challenged, it has ever since remained firm. There are four archbishops in Ireland, but only three real towns, most other places being at best large villages. The people are poor, barbarous, and useless.
RCO00 Ireland Connaught -Connaught, or Connacht, is one of the ancient kingdoms of Ireland, situated in the northwestern part of the island. Its history is as that of the rest of Ireland, chaotic. The Archbishop of Tuam exercises religious authority in the province. It is poor, and disorderly.
RLI00 Ireland Leinster -Leinster occupies the southeastern portion of Ireland, incorporating not only the old Irish Kingdom of Leinster, but also that of Meath, which was traditionally the direct domain of the High Kings of Ireland. There is an archbishop at Dublin, which is the largest town in Ireland, a small place of not 10,000 people. The province is largely agricultural, and quite poor.
RMU00 Ireland Munster -Munster, formerly one of the old Irish kingdoms, occupies the southwestern corner of the great island. There is an archbishop at Cashel, which a large village. The largest town is Waterford, with not 5,000 inhabitants. The province is poor, the peasantry barely surviving on their small farms.
RUL00 Ireland Ulster -Ulster occupies the northeastern portion of Ireland. Formerly the most cohesive of the old Irish kingdoms, under the O'Neill and O'Donnell clans (when they weren't at feud, which was often). The archbishopric at Armagh was established in the Year of Grace 445. There are no towns or even villages of consequence, Armagh itself being a large monastery. A poor place. In great disorder.
S0000 Scotland Scotland -Scotland is a kingdom occupying the northern third of the Island of Britain. The ancient Caledonia, inhabited by a barbarous people known as the Picts, the region was never effectively brought under Roman domination. During the Dark Ages, the Scotti, a Celtic people from what is now Ireland, migrated into the area from the west, while some Germanic tribes entered from across the North Sea, and the Anglo-Saxons penetrated from the south. The result was the creation of several kingdoms, which gradually merged into two, one "of the Picts" and the other "of the Scots," while the present southern regions formed part of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria. The Pictish and Scottish kingdoms were united in 846, apparently under pressure of the Norse invasions. Over the next two centuries the northern portion of Northumbria was incorporated into Scotland, and the Norse were driven out of the footholds which they had gained. Relations with the English were never good, and from the 12th century the latter have made repeated efforts to subdue the Scots, with mixed success. Most recently, the English have managed to drive the righful king, David II, son of the great Robert Bruce, out of the country, to France, where from his exile he stirs up troubles for the Sasenach. Ecclesiastically the kingdom comes under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of York, but the Bishop of St. Andrews is the Primate of Scotland. There is little commerce, the principal pursuits being agricultural and piscatorial. It is poor and uncouth.
SHI00 Scotland Highlands -The Highlands of Scotland are inhabited by the most uncouth of that uncouth kingdom, shepherds and mountaineers who grub a thin living from their flocks and farms, though some fish as well.
SLO00 Scotland Lowlands -The Lowlands are a poor area, rather disorderly in the best of times. The people survive on farming.
SMA00 Scotland Marches -The Scottish Marches are as much Anglo-Saxon as Celtic, but the people are a sturdy lot for all that, hardened by repeated borderwards and forays, and somewhat unruly. There area has some commerce and even manufacturing, of armor and the like, but is primarily agricultural.
Part II: Players and Family Members xyz
1 Everingham, Baron Adam, who holds a small fief in Nottinghamshire, has in times past played but little role in the affairs of the Kingdom, content to manage his estates.
2 de Montiel, Ademar, the Prince-Bishop of Metz, is of noble lineage, albeit from a famiy of modest estate. An able manager and most pious man, through his niece he has ties to the English house of Playa (228)
3 de Rouchechouart, Monseigneur Aimery, le comte de Rouchechouart descends from a most ancient house, one famed in the affairs France and, indeed, all Christendom. Several of his ancestors distinguished themselves on Crusade, and his kinsman Foucaud de Rouchechourt (320) has for some years now been the Archbishop of Bourges.
4 de Tastes, Aimery
5 de Savoy, Aimone, is the current representative of the most noble house of Savoy. Count Humbert I, known as "the Whitehanded" (d. about 1050) was the first of the house to gain distinction, being granted Savoy and some other areas south of Lake Geneva and west of the Alps by the Holy Roman Emperor. Since his time the family has prospered, through careful management, judicious marriages, and occasional war having acquired title to Piedmont and sundry other lands, so that they are now as much Italian princes as French or Imperial ones. The count is well connected, having a sister married to the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus III, and is thus related by marriage to the Marquis of Montferrat, the emperor's paternal uncle. He is a skilled man, much devoted to his house.
6 de Chapelle Alain
7 de Rohan, Alain VII, is the present head of one of the noblest houses of Brittany, and indeed, all France, known through the ages for their courage and skill in battle, and for the great ability which they display in the management of their estates. Truly it has been said, 'If Rohan not be present, than Brittany is not present.'
8 de Castilla y Leon, Don Alfonso, the eleventh of the name, descends from Sancho the Great, who became King of Navarra in the millenial year. By his death, through foul murder, in 1035, the great Sancho had added to his lands Leon and Castilla, which he greatly enlarged at the expense of the Infidel. His lands were divided among his heirs. The line of Castilla, through his son Ferdinand I, worked steadily to reunited the realms. Union with Leon was achieved through marriage in the late 12th century, and by the late 13th the united kingdom had nearly doubled its area at the expense of the Moors, who are now confined to the environs of Granada. King Alfonso is connected by blood to most of the great houses of Christendom. He has two sons, the eldest illegitimate.
9 de Bazeilles, Alond
10 de St-Vollier, The Lady Ame was heiress in her own right to the lands of the St-Vollier. They are an old house, able and clever, but little famed. Although the Lady married well, her husband died in untimely fashion, and she must face the world alone, but for the support of her daughter, who, though young, seems as able as she.
11 de Loheac, Andre
12 de Montault, Anger
13 de Lau, Antoine
14 von Bolen, Arnaud
15 de Stein-am-Mass, Arnaud
16 de Crevole, Monseigneur Arnaut's family has held several fiefs in Perigord since time immemorial. They are reputed a hard lot, greedy and harsh, but sensible in their counsels and have often seen service in the pay of foreign nobles.
17 de Visconti, Azzo I. The Visconti family have ruled the city of Milan and much of Lombardy since 1277, when archbishop Ottone Visconti (1207-1295), took possession of Milan as its signore (lord) in 1277, founding the dynasty. He was succeeded by his nephew 17 Azzo I (i. e. , "Galeazzo," b. 1300), whose heirs are his young nephews, Bernabo (b. 1323) (431) and Galeazzo II (b. c. 1320) (6193). He is supported in his rule by his uncles, Archbishop Giovanni (b. 1290)(429), and Lucchino (b. c. 1287) (426), both able men in their own right. All of the men of the family were able, parsimonious, excellent managers, clever diplomats, absolutely brutal when crossed. Although their rule has been harsh, it has led to prosperity and power for Lombardy (it is not true, however, that they always feed their dogs on human flesh).
18 Freville, SIr Baldwin de Frevilles, although of good Norman stock, if from a family which has only recently come to prominence. As a result of a distinguished career in the Law, Sir Baldwin's father was awarded various estates in Cambridgeshire by grace of His Late Majesty Edward II. Sir Baldwin sided with good King Edward III in the struggle against the evil Mortimer, and has prospered as a result.
19 de Nauton, Bartholomew
20 de Burgesh, Bartholomew II
21 de Beaufort, Thomas
22 Pontifex Maximus, His Holiness, Pope Benedict XII, was born Jacques Fournier, near Pamiers, in France. Unlike his two immediate predecessors, Clement V and John XXII, who were, respectively, of noble and burger origins, the Holy Father is the son of a miller. A kinsman who was a monk early noticed that the young boy was intelligent and quickwitted and arranged for him to secure a clerical education. He rose rapidly in the church, becoming a Cardinal in 1310. His Holiness is quite devout, and has dedicated himself to the organization of a new Crusade to rid the Holy Land of the Infidel.
23 de Ventadour, Bernard
24 Gros, Bernard
25 de Lyon, Monseigneur Bernard I, le comte de Forez, is perhaps not yet fullly developed in his powers as manager and lord of some of the most extensive estates in all France, having come into his fortune at a young age.
26 d'Albret, Bernard-Eai I comes from a house originating in the far north of France. Long settled in the south, they hold in Guyenne and Navarre. Although by no means a Great Lord, the baron is widely respected for his courage, chivalry, and devotion to the House of Plantagenet.
27 du Guesclin, Bertrand is a young fellow, bright and strong, honest, chivalrous, and a surprisingly good man-at-arms. Unfortunately, he is also ugly, coarse, brutal and by no means of the noblest blood, albeit that he claims descent from a Moorish king converted to Christianity by no less than Charlemagne himself.
28 de Argilly, Jeanne. A young orphan, and thus the ward of the king until she comes into her majority and is married.
29 de Juge, Boffile
30 de Bretencourt, Boucherd V
31 de Sigean, Amalric IX
32 ap Gruffyd, Gruffyd IV is the descendant of an ancient Welch house, one which produced several kings in South Wales during the 12th century. He is a distant cousin to Owain I Rhys (194).
33 Grimaldi, Prince Carlo I, a noted seaman and admiral, is the third of his house to hold in Monaco. The family is of old and noble Genoan background. In 1297 the present prince's cousin, Francesco Grimaldi, seized the formidable keep at Monaco by the simple ruse of disguising some of his men as Franciscan monks. In 1301 Prince Francesco ceded the principality to his cousin Ranier, the Lord of Cagnes, who, dying in 1314, passed it to his son, the present prince.
34 d'Estress, Cesar
35 d'Artois, Charles
36 de Baatz d'Artagnan, Charles is a simple knight, with a few fields in the south of France, but no man can challenge his valour and chivalry.
37 de Valois, Charles I, the Count of Alencon, is a man of great courage, given to noble gestures. Quite impulsive, when his wife of 12 years, the Lady Jeanne de Joigny, died last year, he almost immediately remarried. The Count is an important supporter of his brother, King Philippe VI of France (200).
39 de Baissy, Claude
40 Bruce, David II has been King of Scotland since the death of his father, Robert I in 1329. Although defeated by Edward Baliol, at Hlidon Hill in 1333, and forced to flee, the king's authority is stronger in much of Scotland than that of the English-sponsored usurper. He has no heirs of his own at present, being but 13 years of age.
41 de Marbecque, Denis
42 de Thorpe, Sir Edmund comes from a family of prosperous merchants. His father was the first to achieve distinction in the Kingdom, serving in war, in parliament, and in the courts, a career which Sir Edmund and his son both seem destined to emulate, if not exceed in distinction.
43 Grey, Sir Roger came into the estates of his family while still a child, his father having died an untimely death after distinguished and honorable services to the Crown, in the wars with the Scots, in Parliament, and as a justiciar.
44 Plantagenet, Edmund
45 Sifrewist, Sir Edmund is a fine example of an English country knight. Although is family is by no means among the foremost in the kingdom, it is old and honorable. He is a fine manager.
46 Burys Edward, His Grace, the Prince Bishop of Durham and Lord Treasurer of England, is a learned and devout man, worthy of the important posts with which he has been entrusted by both Pope and King. A fine administrator, the noble bishop is very devout and known for his many good works, his numerous scholarly treatises, and his notable collection of books.
38 Plantagenet Edward, the heir to the throne of England, is a noble young prince. Truly the son of his father, he has demonstrated a strength of character, greatness of soul, and sense of honor equal to that of any man in Christendom.
47 Plantagenet Edward III, by the Grace of God the King of England, is a noble fellow. His Grace is a large, fine looking man, who truly looks like a king. The king's grandmother and mother were both daughters of Kings of France (Philip III and Philip IV, respectively), from whence he may be said to have a claim on the throne of France. Good King Edward began his reign in 1327, when he was only 15 years of age. In that year, at the instigation of his Royal Wife, King Edward II was deposed, imprisoned, and later slain by the evil Mortimer. For two years England suffered under the misrule of Queen Isabel and the evil Mortimer, as the young king was kept from power. Demonstrating great skill for one his age, King Edward slowly built an alliance among the most influential of the nobles and commons, and in 1329 ousted his mother from, and took the reigns of, government. Executing Mortimer and his principal supporters in interesting ways, the King exiled his mother to the confines of England, excluding her completely from government. From this it will be seen that the King is a true "Mighty Man" in matters political, diplomatic, governmental, and conspiratorial. Yet his is also the one of the foremost knight of the realm, a veritable Hector in the lists. Should war ever come to darken the peace of his reign, there can be no doubt but that King Edward will bring much glory to the realm
48 Ringois. Although a commoner, Messer Enguerrand is a member of an honorable merchant family, long prominent in the maritime and domestic affairs of Ponthieu. He is a noted seaman, and has often served with distinction against English and Flemish pirates.
49 de Coucy, Enguerrand VI is the last of a noble race, the Sires of Coucy, and is undoubtedly the most 'eligible' bachelor in all France. The earliest known member of the family was one Eudes, granted the fief in the 10th century by its then overlord the Archbishop of Reims. The family is noted for famous feats of arms (during the First Crusade, a Coucy was a member of a band of six knights who, although ambushed by greatly superior numbers of the Infidel, managed to cut their way out, inflicting a severe defeat upon the foe, a feat from which they derive their arms). They are a proud house, and have often defended their rights even against the king, relying upon God's justice, their skill at arms, and their marvellous keep, the greatest in France. Of them it is said, "Neither king, nor prince Nor duke nor count am I I am the Lord of Coucy. "
50 du Pin, Ernauton
51 de Lyon, Espan
52 de St-Laurent, Etienne
53 de Burgundy, M. le duc Eudes --properly Eudes IV-- holds the Duchy of Burgundy in direct descent from Otto, younger son of Eudes --Hugh-- the Great, Duke of France. When Duke Hugh died in 956, he granted the Duchy of France to his eldest son, Hugh Capet (who became King of all France in 987), and Burgundy to Otto. As a result, Duke Eudes --or Odo-- is distantly kin to King Philippe VI (200), his wife being the daughter of Philippe V. The dukes of Burgundy have not always been known to be properly dutiful towards their sovereign overlord, the kings of France. Withal, they are a truly noble house, wise, courageous, generous, pious.
54 de Montberon, Eustance
55 Dandolo, His Grace, Doge Francesco, is of the noblest blood the Serenissima has to offer, his house going back into the dimmest ages of the Republic, its greatest earlier member being that Enrico who, as Doge in the early 13th century, successfully plotted the capture of Constantinople. Before being elected Doge in 1329, Don Francesco had served variously as governor of Negroponte, in the Aegean, as commander of the fleet and army which captured Ceos and Serife from the Byzantines, and in numerous other capacities. Although advanced in years, the Doge is fit and vigorous, and has embarked upon a policy of improving the Republic's foothold on the Italian mainland.
56 de Chateaubriand, Francois Rene
57 de Cajenne, Carcie-Arnout
58 de Carcassone et Foix, Gaston II is the present representative of the House of Carcassone, which is increasingly coming to be known by the name "Foix." Among the most brilliant families in Christendom, the house is an ancient one, which achieved great distinction after the suppression of the vile Albigenses. They are kin of the Captals de Buch (126), and have other important ties as well.
59 de Chatillon
60 le Roy, Gautier
61 Taveau, Geoffrey
62 de la Tremoille, Georges
63 d'Enghien, Gerard I
64 de Joinville, Henri
65 de Susa, Giacomo
66 d'Aton, Gilbert
67 de Laval, Gilles
68 de St-Simon, Gilles
69 de Coche, Giroud I
70 de Biella, Guglielmo VIII
71 l'Angle, Guichard
72 Dauphin, Guichart, le comte de Taligny, baron de Souvigny, and sire de Gannant, is one of the more capable young noblemen in France. Although his estates are modest, they are by no means impoverished, and he is one of the most eligible bachelors in the realm.
73 de Auxenne, Guillaume
74 de Bavaria, Guillaume
75 de Granson, Guilllaume
76 de Harcourt-Tabcreville, Guillaume
77 de Hollande, Count Guillaume, the third of that name in his house to hold the county, is a capable ruler. His wife, the sister of His Grace, King Philippe VI of France (200), is a woman of some abilities in her own right, and their son has shown considerable promise.
78 de Houssaye, Guillaume, a minor and ward of the crown, comes from an minor, but old family which has long held in its part of Brittany.
79 de Juliers, Guillaume
80 de Laique, Guillaume
81 de Chatillon, Guy
82 de Sully, Guy
83 Baveux, Guy
84 Painel, Guillaume
85 de Bethune, Monseigneur Guillaume is titularly le Vicomte de Meaux, as well as Sire de Bethune. The vicomte has rendered numerous services to the Crown over the years, but his son Robert (557) appears to be cut from a different cloth.
86 de Neufchatel, Henri
87 de Salm, Heinrich V
88 d'Urtino, Henry
89 de Grosmont, Henry
90 de Montfaucon, Henri
91 Hussey, Henry
92 Percy, Sir Henry is one of the premier barons of England. Although of Norman descent, the house of Percy is of relatively recent prominence. Indeed, it was only in the lifetime of the grandfather of the present Lord Percy (the elder Henry, 1272-1315), that the family acquired its principal asset, the castle of Alnwick, in 1309, with important responsibilities on the Scottish frontier. Although young, Lord Percy has already proven himself a man of considerable energy and ability.
93 Plantagenet, Henry
94 de Mauny, Herve
95 d'Amboise, Hue
96 Courteney, Baron Hugh comes from an ancient family that has held its lands since the Conquest. He is well connected, being married to the daughter of Humphrey VIII de Bohun, the 4th Earl of Devon, and thus the brother-in-law of the present Earl, Sir William (101).
97 de Audley, Sir James descends from an old family which arrived in England with William the Conqueror. Members of the house have served the realm in numerous ways, achieving considerable honors.
98 de Beaujeu, Humbert
99 de Groslec, Humbert
100 de la Tour du Pin, Humbert, the Dauphine of the Dauphine, is the latest representative of an ancient and distinguished house. Although little famed, the family has always won wide respect for its counsels and skill in government. The Dauphine is kin to His Grace King Robert d'Anjou of Arles and Naples (231), and arguably heir to the latter's lands under the Law Salique.
101 de Bohun, Earl William is the fourth of his house to hold in Devonshire. He came into his estates at a tender age, being only 12 at the time of Earl Humphrey VIII's death, but has since proven himself a fine young nobleman. The earl is a cousin to His Grace King Edward III (47), through is mother, a daughter of Edward I. His elder sister is married to Sir Hugh Courteney (96).
102 de Ghisnes, Ingelram
103 Richemont, Isabelle
104 d'Armagnac, Jacques
105 de Chabannes, Jacques
106 de Harcourt, Jacques
107 de Rue, Jacques
108 de Urgel, Jaime I
109 d'Albon. Although Monseigneur Guy, le prince de Amber and lord of several other places in Forez, comes from a house little famed in France, the d'Albon's are an ancient line, long established. The prince is reputed a good manager for one so young, and an able knight.
110 de Mallorca, Don Jaime III, the young king of Mallorca, is able, handsome, and ambitious, and rumored to be somewhat precipitous in his actions. He is kin to the King of Catalonia and Aragon, both being descended from the gallant Jaime I, and thus he is arguably heir to Don Pedro's (197) vast lands should the latter die without issue.
111 Touchet de Audley, Baron James is a descendant of Adam de Aldithely, who was created First Baron de Audley (as the French put it) by Henry I. The Baron's own father, Nicholas, died while he was still young, but he has shown himself and able and careful manager.
112 Aubert, Jean
113 d'Armagnac, Bernard VI is arguably the most powreful French-leaning nobleman in all Aquitaine. As with his ancestors, he has stoutly upheld the authority of the Crown of France over that of the dukes, who perchance have been the Kings of England. The count has held a number of important administrative posts in the King's service. His son, is a fine, talented young nobleman who has yet to win his spurs.
114 de Clermont Jean I, the Count of Montfort and Dauphine d'Auvergne, is among the foremost noblemen in all France. An able ruler of considerable accomplishments, not least as a knight and diplomat, the count may arguably claim the duchy of Brittany, should the present duke die heirless.
115 d'Orleans, Monseigneur Jean, le comte de Dunois, has but small estate, save in honor and nobility. The Connetable de France for many years now, the count has always proven wise and able, whether in war or peace. Now quite old, his son, Guy (797) has shown himself worthy of his sire.
116 Daillon, Jean
117 de Bertrand, Jean
118 de Bourgogne, Jean
119 de Camus, Jean
120 de Chalon, Jean
121 de Clermont, Jean
122 de Crespy, Jean
123 de Dreux, Jean
124 de Foix, Sir Jean is distantly kin to the Count of Foix (58). Although his branch of the family is less distinguished than those of the counts, they are capable rulers.
125 de Gonzolles, Jean
126 de Grailly, Pierre II, the Captal de Buch, is of a most ancient family, which has held Buch and some other fiefs in its vicinity since time immemorial. The de Grailly's have been loyal to their overlords, the Dukes of Aquitaine for centuries. They are a noble, able house, fine warriors and excellent rulers. They are also well connected, among their kin being counted the Count of Foix (58).
127 de Guise, His Grace Jean, Prince-Bishop of Utrecht, has for many years demonstrated both spiritual and temporal excellence. His bishopric is prosperous and holy, and his advice is sought by all.
128 de La Ferte. Although Baron Jean has but small estate in lands, he is full of honors. Marechal de France for several years now, he is great knight, both in the lists and in war, and a sage commander.
129 de la Perche, Jean
130 de Lothier, Jean III, the Duke of Brabant, is the most recent member of a family with its roots deep in the history of Lower Lorraine. Through his late mother, Margaret, sister of Edward II, he is an uncle to King Edward III of England, a connection much prized. The duke is a careful ruler, frugal and pious.
131 de Bohemie, Jean, the King of Bohemia and Duke of Luxembourg, is one of the noblest knights of the age, albeit that he is now blind. A good and gallant ruler, he has many ties to the French royal house, his late sister Marie having been the wife of the late Charles IV of France, and his daughter Judith (6199) being married to Prince Jean II (171) of France.
132 de Marigny, Jean
133 de Mauquenchy, Jean
134 de Nesles, Jean
135 de Pierrepont, Jean
136 de Polignac, Jean
137 de Pontalier, Jean
138 de Ponthieve, Jean
139 de Rohan Count Jean is a distant cousin of the Vicomtes de Pontivy (7), and thus kin to one of the noblest houses in France. He shares the family's great abilities in administration and politics.
140 de Rosnyvinen, Jean
141 de Saintre, Jean
142 de Vienne, Jean
143 de Lovendal, Jean
145 de Vendome, Jean I
146 de Chalon, Jean II
147 de Melun, Jean II, comes from an ancient family, by origin from Champagne, but holding also in Normandy now for more than a century. In the process, through loyal service to their Duke, the King, they have become hereditary Constables of Normandy, a post of great importance.
148 de Saarbrucken, Jean II
149 de Dammartin, Jean III
150 le Bel, Jean
151 de Pierrepont, Jean V
152 de Ste-Suzanne , Jean V
153 Falvy , Jean VI
154 de la Barde , Jeanne
155 de Penthieve, Jeanne, the Countess of Penthieve in her own right, is the last of a noble house. Originally vassals of the Dukes of Brittany, the Penthieves have long since established that none other than the King is their overlord. By an interesting series of marriages, the countess is arguably the heiress to the duchy of Brittany, should the duke die heirless.
156 de Bourgogne, the Lady Jeanne II, le comtesse de Franche-Comte, has shown herself able and clever. In the aftermath of the death of her husband, she has spurned offers of marriage, to concentrate on managing her estates and raising her son, and she has been blessed in both, for her lands prosper and her son, Philippe (499) seems likely to become a great lord.
157 de Navarra, Juana II is the daughter of the late Louis X of France, granted her grandmother's kingdom of Navarra due to her disqalification for the throne of France under the Salic Law. Through her spouse, Philippe (6200), le Comte d'Evreux (and himself arguably an heir to the throne of France through a descent from Philippe III), she is quite influential in France as well as Navarra. Their young son, Prince Carlos (629) is rumored to be wild, undisciplined, and quite naughty, and their daughter, Agnes, even more so.
158 de Hastings, Sir John's father, the First Baron de Hastings, created by good King Edward I himself, died some twenty years ago. Since then, Sir John has shown himself a good manager, well liked by his tenants and vassals. Through his wife he is kin to the Earl of March, a valuable tie indeed.
159 de Kirkby, John
160 Fillol, John
162 Hausted, John
163 de Cobham, Sir Henry, the 4th Baron de Cobham, has a distinguished ancestry, the first of his house fighting alongside William the Conqueror. Generally regarded as a man of great honor, the baron is widely admired in England. He is also well connected, his wife being kin of the Beauchamps.
164 Mowbry. Young Sir John is the 9th Baron Mowbry. They are an ancient line, hard men, addicted to honor and right. Indeed, for standing against tyranny the baron's own father was slain on false charges by minions of the late Edward II in 1322, and the family destituted. It was only the advent of Good King Edward III that led to the restoration of the family's fortunes.
165 Kent, John
166 Scrope. Sir John's father, the son of a lawyer and merchant, was the first Scrope to achieve some distinction in the kingdom, being knighted on the field of Falkirk in 1298 by great King Edward I himself. Both father and son have subsequently added to the family's honors. They bear 'azure a bend or,' a matter which they dispute with the Grosvenor family.
167 Wynn, John. While many of the Welch nobility claim descent from petty kings in their country's turbulent past, Sir John Wynn is truly of royal descent, his line deriving from the great Gruffyd ap Cynan ab Iago, who, together with his son and heir, Owen Gwynedd, ruled all North Wales as king for nearly a century from the time of William the Conqueror to that of Henry II. Since fallen on harder times, Sir John is nevertheless a pround, noble man.
168 Talbot, Sir Gilbert Talbot, or more properly "de Talbot," is the current head of a very old house, kin to the Earls of Warwick, and holding in several parts of England. The baron ran afoul of the evil advisors of the late King Edward II, but managed to survive through judicious distribution of bribes. He and his son both supported Good King Edward III in his struggle to claim his rightful powers as king, and both have distinguished themselves in was against the Scots several times, and in Parliament.
169 de Bazeilles, LeMoine
170 de Armenie et Cypre. His Grace, Leon, is head of the House of Lusignan, and a distant cousin to the Kings of England and of Arles. In his own right he is King of Armenia, Cyprus, and above all Jerusalem. Long in exile from his kingdoms, His Grace refuses to give up his rights to them, as also to the County of Tuscany, despite the assertions of the Florentines and other Italians to the contrary. He has worked tirelessly for the calling of a Crusade that he might liberate his lands from the Infidel, but, alas, despite support from the Holy Father himself all the chivalry of Christendom have turned a deaf ear to his pleas to rescue the Holy Places.
172 d'Estouteville, Louis
173 Dampierre, Count Louis II, the son of Guy de Dampierre, who inherited the county of Hainaunt in 1278, as a descendant of Baldwin VI. An able, careful ruler, the count is kin to His Grace King Philippe VI of France (200), through his wife, the daughter of the late Philippe V, and thus the brother-in-law of M. le duc de Burgundy (53).
174 de Beaumont. Monseigneur Louis, presently a ward of the Crown, comes from a minor, but distinguished family. A talented young nobleman,when he comes into his majority he will undoubtedly make a mark the world.
175 de Bourbon-Bourbon, Louis is the son of Robert of Clermont (1256-1318), who was himself the sixth son of St. Louis IX. Prince Robert married the heiress to the duchy of Bourbon. He is well connected, for, besides being a cousin to the king, his daughter Beatrice (824) married King Jean de Bohemia in 1334, and his second son, Louis de Bourbon-LaMarche is the count of La Marche (176). The Duke's heir, Pierre (494), is as capable as his sire, and the duchy prospers under their oversight.
176 de Bourbon-LaMarche, Louis is the second son of Duke Louis I (175) of Bourbon, but is himself invested with the important Country of La Marche. He is a capable man, and his son Jacques (572) shows great promise as both a man and a knight.
177 de Savoy. A cousin of the Count of Savoy (5), Baron Louis holds important estates in fief from him. Although relations between the greater and the lesser branches of the family are peaceful, should the elder line die out, its vast properties would necessarily pass to the younger.
178 de Tonnere, Louis
179 Hallwin de Piennes, Sir Louis comes from burger stock, of a prosperous and even gently born line to be sure. The family has been prominent in their city of generations, and he is but the most recent to hold high office.
180 de Sancerre, Louis II
181 von Bayern. Prince Ludwig is the son of the Holy Roman Emperor, Ludwig IV, and technically holds this fief in his name. However, he has been given a free hand, since his father is quite engaged in the intricate affaris of Germany. The Prince is able, well trained, and careful.
182 de Roye, Matthieu, the Sire d'Aunoy, is a distinguished knight, well regarded by all. His Grace the King has seen fit to elevate Monseigneur de Roye to Master of the Crossbowmen, in which capacity he is an intimate of the principal officers of state for war.
183 de Trie, Mathieu
184 Berkeley, Maurice
185 Cantilupe, Nicholas
186 de Breche, Nicholas
187 d'Arcy, Norman
188 de Walkfare, Oliver
189 de Clisson, Olivier is from one of the most noble families in all Brittany, albeit one with a turbulent past. The Sire of Clisson and of Belleville, the family is noted for ferocity in war, coarseness of manner, and occasional treacheries, and they have often taken up the sword against their overlords, the Dukes of Brittany, not to mention the Kings of France themselves.
190 de Montaubon, Olivier
191 Fretant, Olivier
192 ap Gwain, Sir Orian, like so many Welch noblemen, claims numerous kings among his ancestors. Immensely proud and independent, like so many Welch noblemen his estates provide a spare living.
193 Granson, Othe
194 ap Rhys, Owain I is a member of a very old Welch family, kin to several kings who reigned in South Wales during the 12th century. He is a distant cousin to Gruffyd IV ap --or ab-- Gruffyd (32).
195 Glyn Dwr, "Prince" Madog ab Gruffyd as he is termed in Wales, comes from an old family. The Glyn Dwrs --Glyndyrdwy or Glendower-- have held in Powys since the 11th century, and were particularly powerful in northern Wales during the 13th century, being among the last to render homage to the Kings of England.
196 Waldron, Sir Owen is of Norman descent, gently, although not nobly born. His line has held in Leiscester and its environs since the Conquest. Simple country kinghts, they have served their king well and often.
197 Berenguer, Don Pedro IV, heir the vast kingdoms of the House of Berenguer in the Spains, in Sicily, and in the Isles, is among the foremost rulers of the age. A wise and frugal monarch, he moves cautiously, for his estates confront foes on many fronts, among them Moors, Angevins, Italians, and Greeks. By common descent from Jaime I, Don Pedro would be the heir to the Kingdom of Mallorca, should anything happen to his dear cousin, Don Jaime III (110).
198 Montfort, Peter
199 Marley, Peter
171 de Valois, Jean II, son and heir to Philippe VI of France (200), is a noble fellow, the flower of chivalry and a promising knight in his own right. He is married to Princess Judith of Bohemia (6199), daughter of His Grace, King Jean of Bohemia, the Duke of Luxembourg (131).
200 de Valois, Philippe VI is King of France. He is of the Capetian line, through Charles, the second son of Philip III (r. 1270-1285), who was created Count of Valois by his royal father. Charles' son, Philip inherited the county in 1325, and then became King of France upon the death of his cousin Charles IV (r. 1322-1328), who was the youngest grandson of Philip III by his son Philip IV (r. 1285-1314), having suceeded his older brother Louis X (r. 1314-1316) and Philip V (r. 1316-1322), both of whom died without issue. King Philip's first cousin, Isabel, the eldest of Philip IV's children, is the mother of King Edward III of England. King Philip is a strong sovereign, albeit perhaps not strong enough for France.
The fact that King Philip VI reached the throne through tragedy, the deaths of four successive kings of France within little more than a dozen years has oft been remarked upon. It is said that there was curse upon the line in its last years. Towards the end of his reign Philip IV, in collusion with Pope Clement V, desirous of the wealth of the Knights Templar, brought against them false charges of heresy and blasphemy. As he was being put to the torch, the last Grand Master of the Templars called upon the Lord to curse both pope and king, and all the latter's heirs as well unto the thirteenth generation. And in truth, the Pope died within months of the burning, the king, although a vigorous and healthy man of but 47, died soon afterwards, as did each of his three sons, after each ascended the throne in succession to the other, leaving the house heirless. By the grace of God it is to be hoped that His Grace King Philip VI is free of the curse.
201 d'Aumont, Pierre I
202 de Craon, Pierre
203 de Dreux, Pierre
204 de Preaux, Pierre
205 de Rohan, Pierre
206 du Barril, Pierre
207 du Verny, Pierre
208 Basset, Sir Ralph is from an old house, and a restless one. His grandfather was that Sir Ralph Basset slain in the Baron's War against King Henry III. The present baron's father being then but a young child, he was not punished for the sins of his father, and proved a loyal, able vassal, as has Sir Ralph.
209 de Cromwell, Ralph
210 de Rahy, Ralph
211 de Stafford, Sir Ralph de Stafford is the son of the late Baron Edmund and his wife, Mary Basset, daughter of that Baron Basset slain in 1265 during the Baron's War, and is thus cousin to Sir Ralph Basset. The Baron has seen much service in the King's name, including participation in the wars with the Scots. During the time of the evil Mortimer he was a champion of the rights of good King Edward III.
212 Gorges, Ralph
213 Neville, Lord Ralph Neville, Baron of Raby, is the Warden of the Northern Marches, Good King Edward's principal military officer on the Scottish frontier, responsible for keeping the uncouth barbarians at bay. He is a capable officer, albeit sometimes considered young for the post.
214 de Lorraine, Duke Raoul--or Rodolphe-- of Lorraine inherited the duchy from his late father, Duke Frederic IV a scant decade ago. The family has held the duchy for over a century, and shown themselves excellent overlords to for their diverse lands.
216 d'Orange, Raymond
217 de Toulouse-Lautrec, Raymond, the present Count of Toulouse, Lord of Lautrec, and much else besides, is a scion of an ancient house, once --and not so long ago-- among the most powerful in all Christendom. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Counts of Toulouse, often in alliance with the Catalans and Aragonese, dominated southern France from Gascony to the Rhone, and well beyond into Provence, maintaining a brilliant court, fostering commerce, and patronizing the arts, most notably the troubador poets of the Languedoc. But all this came to an end when they proved unable to stem the Albigensian heresy, which swept their lands with such fervor that a Holy Crusade was required to extirpate it. In the process, the House of Toulouse was deprived of most of its holdings only regaining a portion of their ancestral lands by force of arms in 1218. Since that time, the family has achieved no greater distinction than any other in France, but still stands on its claims to the Counties of Quercy, Rouergue, and Toulouse, despite the fact that King Philippe himself holds those fiefs.
218 de Zedulach, Raymond
219 de Cobham. Although relations between the two branches of the family are cordial, Sir Reginald comes from a less distinguished branch of the de Cobhams (163). Like them he is an able, loyal country knight.
220 d'Angenres, Regnaut
221 de Toul, Renard
222 de Pons, Renard VI
223 Cogan Richard
224 d'Armories, Richard
225 de Clare, Richard
226 Fitzalan, Sir Richard, the Earl of Arundel and Warrene, and Lord of much else besides, is the second of that name to hold the earldom. When new to his estates he was at feud with the evil Mortimer, and suffered confiscations as a result, but his lands were all restored, and more, by good King Edward III. Sir Richard is Chief Justice of North Wales and Sheriff or Carnaevon. He is linked by marriage to the de Spensers.
227 Harcout, Richard
228 Playa, Sir Richard, Baron Pulborough, is a young man, of modest estate, though well-connected, his wife being the niece of the Prince-Bishop of Metz (2). The baron is a good manager, but as yet unproven in war.
229 Bertram, Sir Robert is the grandson of the likenamed Baron de Bertram who rebelled against King Henry III more than fifty years ago, with the result that his lands were confiscated by then Prince Edward, as regent for his ailing sire. Some years later the prince, having ascended the thone as Edward I, restored the lands to the present baron's father. The baron is kin by marriage to the Nevilles.
230 Clifford, Sir Robert, seventh Baron de Clifford, is the grandson of the like named fifth baron, the greatest baron of his age and the most notable of the ministers of good King Edward I. The fifth baron's son inherited on the death of his father, but in the reign of the late King Edward II ran afoul of the evil Mortimer, was executed, and much of his estate denied to his son, the present baron. For their loyalty to the throne, Edward III has restored the Cliffords to their full estate.
231 d'Anjou, Robert, King of Arles and Naples, Count of Provence, and lord of much else besides, is the scion of the great House of Anjou, descdended from Charles, younger brother of Louis IX of France (better known as St. Louis), who was invested with Anjou in 1246, acquired Arles a few years later and, in 1266, was granted Naples by the Pope (provided he could conquer it from the heirs of Frederick II von Hohenstauffen, the great German Emperor). King Robert, grandson of Charles, acceded to his father's estates and titles in 1309 (an elder brother inherited their mother's claim to Hungary, and another refused the throne). King Robert's heir, for Naples and Provence, Princess Giovanna of Naples (600), is his granddaughter, a charming child of ten, who is "married" to her slightly younger second cousin Andrew (6194), prince of Hungary and Calabria. The succession for the Crown of Arles and his other estates is unclear, as the Princess is disqualified by the Lex Salica.
232 de Bar, Robert
233 de Bouchier, Sir Robert and his family have held the Baron of Pleshy and other estates in Essex for many generations. As a reward for his loyal and able services, Good King Edward has named Sir Robert Lord Chancellor of England, by which he helps maintain the honor and prosperity of the kingdom.
234 de Breux, Robert
235 de Guitte, Monseigneur Robert's family has long held in Brittany. Although never among the most distinguished houses in the duchy, they have been reliable men, in war and peace.
236 de Kerdeston, Robert
237 de Ufford, Baron Robert is the grandson of one of King Edward I's most loyal supporters. Despite such illustrious descent, the present baron prefers to manage his estates and live quietly.
238 de Wargnies, Robert
239 Grosvenor, Sir Robert, the present head of the Grosvenors, is a capable man, albeit now greatly advanced in years. The Grosvenors are an ancient house, kin to the old earls of Chester, and have been holding in several parts of England since they arrived with William the Conqueror, and have kin among the highest in the land. For arms they bear 'azure, a bend or,' an achievement which the Scrope family disputes.
240 d'Artois, Count Robert II and his house have held in Artois for many years. An able family, they have perhaps not received the fame and reward comensurate with their services to the crown. Their loyalties, however, cannot be doubted, and it was for this that His Grace King Philippe VI granted them Eu, in the room of Edward III of England, who had forfeited the lands.
241 Neville, Ralph. Sir Ralph, the fourth Baron de Neville is head of one of the greatest houses in all England. On top of the accomplishments of his iillustrious ancestors he has piled service in the Scottish Wars, in the courts, and as a diplomat. Wed to a daughter of the equally distinguished Audleys, the baron is blessed with a wealth of sons and daughters.
242 d'Auvergne. An able manager and governor, M. le victome Robert VII, is distantly kin to the Dauphine d'Auvergne (114).
243 Willoughby, Robert
244 Chandos, Roger
245 Hussey de Betchworth, Roger
246 de la Marche, Count Roger-Bernard and his family have held Perigord for some generations now, a difficult task, given that their direct lord, the Duke of Aqutaine, is often at odds with their overlord, the King of France. They have survived through great skill at diplomacy.
247 de Badefol, Sequin
248 de Covino. The Seigneur Simon de Covino is heir to an impoverished but noble Italian knight who took service in the Crusade against the Albigensian heretics early in the last century, winning for himself honors and lands from both Church and Crown. An able manager, the seigneur is blessed with numerous offspring.
249 Budes, Sylvestre
250 de Joyeuse, Tannequy
251 Paleologo. Il marchese Teodoro is the second son of His Greatness Emperor Andronicus II of Constantinople. Don Teodoro as granted Montferrat in 1306, it being his mother's in her own right as last heiress to the ancient house of the marquisate. Author of >Instructions and Directions for a Lord Who Has Wars to Wage and Governing to Do<, the Marquis is an accomplished soldier and administrator. He is also uncle of the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus III, who is married to Princess Anna of Savoy.
252 de Grand Pre, Count Thierry III comes from an ancient house, prominent in the north of France since time immemorial. They have the reputation of being able and gallant knights, always seeking to fight in the first rank.
253 ap Adam, Thomas
256 de Beauchamp, Sir Thomas, the Earl of Warwick, is one of the premier nobles of England. Prominent in the counsels of His Grace King Edward, the earl is noted for his ambition, sagacity, and skill. He is connected by marriage to many of the foremost families of the realm, among them the de Cobhams (163).
257 de Redvers, Thomas
258 de Vis de Leu, Thomas
259 de Woodstock, Thomas
260 Falvesley, Thomas
261 Gwynedd, Thomas
262 Holland, Thomas
263 Ferrers, Thomas
264 Pelham, Thomas
265 Plantagenet, Thomas, cousin to Good King Edward, is Earl Marshal of England, the premier commander at arms of the realm after His Grace Himself.
266 Roos, Thomas
267 Tuberville, Thomas
268 Vernon, Thomas
269 de Saluzzo, Don Tomaso II is of the most ancient blood, his family being long established in their rather mountainous lands. Although not reputed as great warriors, they are ready and capable to fight at need in defense of their lands. They are sound managers. The marchese is blessed with a wealth of sons and daughters.
270 ap Tudor, Tudor
271 d'Enghien, Wachter III
272 de Luxembourg, Walderon
273 de Raineval, Waleron
274 de Wingene, Wauthier III
275 Beraton, William
276 d'Enycourt, William
277 de Clinton, William
278 de la Pole, William. Although not of noble blood, the de la Poles are of honorable origins, the family being long prominent in Hull and through much of Yorkshire. Indeed, Sir William has loyally served the Crown in a variety of capacities, including a magistracy, and is so highly esteemed by his neighbors that when, in 1332 Hull was granted the status of a Royal Town, the burgers elected him their first Lord Mayor, a post which he executed with distinction for three years. The family has many interests in shipping and commerce.
279 de Leyburn, William
280 de Vere, William
281 de Warenne, William
282 Douglas. Sir William, the "King" of Man, is kin to the great Scottish House of Douglas, founded in the 12th century. The Douglases have ever proven men of great honor and courage. Sir William's brother, the great James the Black fought at the side of Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn. Years later he took it upon himself to fulfill King Robert's vow to go on crusade, taking the King's heart to Spain, where he was killed fighting against the Infidel.
283 Herbert, William
284 Latimer, William
285 de Limbourg, Heinrich V
286 de St-Severe, Louis I
287 Boccanera, Simone. Don Simone, comes from an old Genovese family which within the last two centuries has risen from the commonality to the nobility of the Republic, by their skills as merchants, soldiers, and administrators. Just two years ago he emerged at the head of the ghibelline party in the city, and has been directing its affairs ever since. Although formally Don Simone holds no title, he is commonly addressed as "Console," and there is talk of creating him Doge.
288 Inconnu, Personne I. This was a substitute character, inserted into the database until we could unscramble the true titles to the lands which this character was originally given in the game. This problem has since been resolved and character 288 is no longer active. However, someday the true history of the House of Inconnu will be written.
289 de Decize, Jean
290 Baudet, Guy
291 Fulano de Tal, Don Juan Sebastian, like many other nobles south of the Pyrennes, is of ancient, indeed obscure lineage, and quite poor, a condition not improved by his extreme youth, which makes him a ward of the Crown.
292 Montecute, William
293 d'Aguerre, Gracien
294 de Floques, Robert
295 Grimaldi, Lord Gabriele is a cousin to the Grimaldis of Monaco, both lines descending from one Oberto Grimaldo, a banker and merchant from Genoa, who died in the mid-13th century. The present Lord's father, Gaspardo, acquired the fief early in the century, and upon his untimely death in 1331, it passed to the Lord Garbiele.
296 de Lion, Gaston
297 de Loraille, Thomas
298 de Cousinot, Guillaume
299 Mancip, Hugues
300 van Bus, Louis
301 di Firenze. The Ciompi represent but the latest in a series of ephemeral rulers in Tuscany, where nobles battle with commons, rich with poor, townsmen with countrymen, and choas reigns. The Ciopmi will doubtless not last long, as they are but a committee of low- born mechanics and clarks.
302 Aubert, Pierre I
303 de la Scala Mastino II, the lord of Verona, is the current representative of a family which has ruled the city and, as time has gone by, a number of its neighbors (Vicenza, Padova, Feltre, Belluno, Brescia, and so forth) since 1260. Although hard, their rule is tolerated not only because it has brought internal peace, but because the city's safety is threatened by Venice on the east and Lombardy, under the even harsher Visconti, to the west. Don Mastino's son, Cangrande II (631), is if anything even more able than his father, and great things may be expected of him in due course. Both father and son are patrons of the arts and have embellished their city.
304 de Vogte, Guillaume
305 de Namur, Guillaume
306 de Avesne, Guillaume